An Approach to Design Smart Grids and Their IT System by Cosimulation

software information processing

Table of Contents


Smart grids are the oncoming generation of power grids, which rely on information and communication
technologies to tackle decentralized and intermittent energy sources such as wind farms and photovoltaic
Plants. They integrate electronics, software information processing, and telecommunications technical domains. Therefore, the design of smart grids is complex because of the various technical domains and modeling
Tools at stake. In this article, we present an approach to their design, which relies on model-driven engineering, executable models, and FMI based co-simulation. This approach is illustrated on the use case of an insular
Power grid and allows us to study the impact of power production decisions.


Smart Grids are the oncoming generation of power grids, enabled by information and communication
Technologies, taking part in the transformation of the electrical power landscape. They especially support the introduction of decentralized and renewable energy sources in electrical production, allow prevention, better reactivity, and improved response to events such as electrical failures.

Smart Grids are therefore large-scale critical systems potentially impacting a lot of people. Such systems require thorough verification and validation before their implementation, and simulation is very valuable to evaluate various behavioral assumptions. Because they involve many interdependent technical domains, namely electronics, software information processing, and telecommunications, Smart Grids are a typical example of complex systems to design.

Model-Driven Engineering (MDE) principles are well-suited to address the
Design and development issues of complex industrial systems by reasoning on executable models all along their life cycle (Hutchinson et al., 2011).

However, there lacks a general approach to interconnect models from different technical domains in a co-simulation Approach for engineering complex systems (Gomeset al., 2018). These models are designed using different tools for manipulating state machines, activity diagrams, discrete events, or statistical models, and the accuracy and the predictive value of the co-simulation depend on proper integration of these tools and the synchronization of their execution.

It is therefore mandatory to ensure the macroscopic alignment of the models with the business processes and to maintain the consistency of the global model through the iterations of the individual models toward a final design. This paper proposes an approach to assist Smart Grid designers in evaluating the global behavior of their solution and to evaluate the impact of energy production decisions. Our approach is based on MDE principles and the FMI standard for the co-simulation of dynamic models and focuses on computational and application modeling.


In this paper, we propose a co-simulation approach and highlight the purpose of its steps and how they are related(software information processing). We provide insights for the realization of each step, by giving tool propositions and illustration with a use case.

This use case is only a proof of concept, so the models and behaviors are kept simple. We should also perform further simulations with different parameters (load curves), over a longer period to be relevant to the assessment of the design choices.

Also, we are focusing on the IT Domain, explicating a method to model its behavior at different levels of detail to manage potential complexity. We are planning to integrate the Telecom Domain the next prototype. We are currently working on increasing the consistency of our approach, by enabling automated transitions between the different steps, to align more properly with the MDE guidelines.

The first step on Inter-domain connections has a strong potential for improvement in this area. Executable models are the primary artifacts of MDE approaches, but the Inter-domain connections description produced in our approach is not executable. It only gives a hint to the modelers on how to make the interactions between the models, but nothing prevents them to do otherwise or to be mistaken.

Moreover, the fact that all the actors reach an agreement on the final interface between domains very early in the design process when no model has been defined yet is a strong hypothesis of our approach. Future evolutions of our approach rely on a high-level architectural model, like the one exposed in(Andren et al., 2017), from which domain interfaces ´and interconnections can be deducted automatically.

Consistency verification with domain models and automated transformations should also be facilitated. Finally, the simulation of a Smart Grid is relevant if we can ensure that the future implementation and deployment of the system conform to its models

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The Kavian Scientific Research Association (KSRA) is a non-profit research organization to provide research / educational services in December 2013. The members of the community had formed a virtual group on the Viber social network. The core of the Kavian Scientific Association was formed with these members as founders. These individuals, led by Professor Siavosh Kaviani, decided to launch a scientific / research association with an emphasis on education.

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An Approach to Design Smart Grids and Their IT System by Cosimulation
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Professor Siavosh Kaviani was born in 1961 in Tehran. He had a professorship. He holds a Ph.D. in Software Engineering from the QL University of Software Development Methodology and an honorary Ph.D. from the University of Chelsea.