This paper provides an overview of the current and near-future applications of Artificial Intelligence (AI) in Medicine and Health Care and presents a classification according to their ethical and societal aspects, potential benefits and pitfalls, and issues that can be considered controversial and are not deeply discussed in the literature. This work is based on an analysis of the state of the art of research and technology, including existing software, personal monitoring devices, genetic tests and editing tools, personalized digital models, online platforms, augmented reality devices, and surgical and companion robotics. Motivated by our review, we present and describe the notion of “extended personalized medicine”, we then review existing applications of AI in medicine and healthcare and explore the public perception of medical AI systems, and how they show, simultaneously, extraordinary opportunities and drawbacks that even question fundamental medical concepts. Many of these topics coincide with urgent priorities recently defined by the World Health Organization for the coming decade. In addition, we study the transformations of the roles of doctors and patients in an age of ubiquitous information, identify the risk of a division of Medicine into “fake-based”, “patient-generated”, and “scientifically tailored”, and draw the attention of some aspects that need further thorough analysis and public debate.
Artificial Intelligence (AI) in Medicine and Health Care is a new realm of science and technology. It already affects many human activities at all societal levels, from individuals to social groups, corporations, and nations. AI is expanding rapidly, worldwide, in almost every industrial, economical and societal sector, from information technologies to commerce, manufacturing, space, remote sensing, security and defense, transport and vehicles and, since the beginning of the XXI century, it is effectively entering into Medicine and Health Care1,2.
The fast and powerful evolution of AI is fostered by many factors. Among them,
. the availability of powerful and cost-effective computing (processing) tools, hardware (e.g. graphics processing units), software and applications, –even in consumer-grade personal computers and mobile devices– and of large (big) data sets, with many different types and formats of information, both in online and cloud platforms and generated in real-time by user wearables and the internet-of-things (IoT),
. the expansion of open-source coding resources and online communities of users and practitioners sharing resources, expertise (know-how), and experience, and
. the combination of computer processing with other technologies such as photonics (merging of applied optics and electronics) and human-machine interfaces.
Recent advances in AI systems in Medicine and Health Care present extraordinary opportunities, – particularly in areas of such deep social interest as oncology3– together with significant questions4 and drawbacks5–7, calling for a close consideration of their implementation8 and how they affect – and can even change– basic definitions in the medical context9–11. This study provides a review of existing and near-future applications of AI in this particular sector from the point of view of their potential benefits and pitfalls, ethical, and social impact. We also identify a set of controversial issues that are not deeply discussed in the literature and should be further researched.
Notably, many of the topics presented in this work coincide with six of the thirteen urgent priorities recently defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) for the coming decade12. These coinciding priorities explicitly include: “Harnessing new technologies”, “Earning public trust”, “Protecting people from dangerous products”, “Making health care fairer”, “Expanding access to medicines”, and “Preparing for epidemics”. Within the specific priority of “Harnessing new technologies”, the WHO defines the challenge as “New technologies are revolutionizing our ability to prevent, diagnose and treat many diseases. Genome editing, synthetic biology and digital health technologies such as artificial intelligence can solve many problems, but also raise new questions and challenges for monitoring and regulation. Without a deeper understanding of their ethical and social implications, these new technologies, which include the capacity to create new organisms, could harm the people they are intended to help”.
This work is based on an exhaustive literature review of existing scientific publications and technical publications, including software packages, personal monitoring devices, genetic tests and editing tools, personalized digital models, online platforms, augmented reality devices, and surgical and companion robotics13. This review covered 588 references, most of them from 2016-2019 but intended to be dynamically updated, including standard scientific and academic platforms such as MEDLINE, Current Contents, and PubMed plus product descriptions and internet and press articles of well-recognized sources which are relevant for the topic. From this review, we summarize here our main findings, discussion points, and conclusions, supported by 107 representative references.
The range of applications of AI and Artificial intelligence in medicine and healthcare is vast and rapidly increasing, with many powerful potential (positive and negative) results, which may affect the human being and society at all scales. Most of the questions collected in this review remain challenging as their answers are not yet clear at this time, but our goal is to open the way for a multidisciplinary, public discussion of the raised issues to define the principles, ethical and societal guidelines –and potential boundaries– on this matter.
The Kavian Scientific Research Association (KSRA) is a non-profit research organization to provide research / educational services in December 2013. The members of the community had formed a virtual group on the Viber social network. The core of the Kavian Scientific Association was formed with these members as founders. These individuals, led by Professor Siavosh Kaviani, decided to launch a scientific / research association with an emphasis on education.
KSRA research association, as a non-profit research firm, is committed to providing research services in the field of knowledge. The main beneficiaries of this association are public or private knowledge-based companies, students, researchers, researchers, professors, universities, and industrial and semi-industrial centers around the world.
Our main services Based on Education for all Spectrum people in the world. We want to make an integration between researches and educations. We believe education is the main right of Human beings. So our services should be concentrated on inclusive education.
The KSRA team partners with local under-served communities around the world to improve the access to and quality of knowledge based on education, amplify and augment learning programs where they exist, and create new opportunities for e-learning where traditional education systems are lacking or non-existent.
FULL Paper PDF file:Artificial intelligence in medicine and healthcare: a review and classification of current and near-future applications and their ethical and social Impact
Artificial intelligence in medicine and healthcare: a review and classification of current and near-future applications and their ethical and social Impact
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Professor Siavosh Kaviani was born in 1961 in Tehran. He had a professorship. He holds a Ph.D. in Software Engineering from the QL University of Software Development Methodology and an honorary Ph.D. from the University of Chelsea.