Introduction: Yalda night or Shab-e Cheleh is one of the oldest Iranian holidays, which, like Nowruz and Chaharshanbe Souri, (Red Wednesday) is a reminder of the ancient history of Iran. This night is …
A short introduction!
According to all philosophers, the most difficult question to ask is,
” What is philosophy ?”
In fact, one can never say what philosophy is; That is, one can never say: this is a philosophy and there is no other; Because philosophy is the freest kind of human activity and it can not be limited to a specific thing.
The life of philosophical system is as long as the life of man on earth and has changed a lot throughout history and each time has been different from other periods.
For this, it is enough to look at the different definitions. See:
- Different definitions of philosophy
However, we try to introduce philosophy as much as we can.
The word philosophy
The word philosophy or philosophy, which is a Greek word, consists of two parts:
Philo means to love and Sophia means wisdom.
The first person to use the word was Pythagoras. When he was asked: Are you a wise person? He replied:
No, but I am a lover of wisdom (philosopher).
Thus, from the first day of its origin, philosophy has meant the love of knowledge, thinking, and wisdom.
Definition of philosophy
Philosophy is thinking. Thinking about the most general and fundamental issues we face in the world and in life. Philosophy emerges when we ask fundamental questions about ourselves and the world. Questions such as:
- What is beauty? Where were we before we were born? What is the truth of time?
Does the universe have a purpose? If life has meaning, how do we understand it?
Is it possible that it is something and has no cause? We know the world as reality, but what does reality mean?
Is man’s destiny in his own hands or is it determined from the outside? How do we know we are not all asleep? What is God? ” And dozens of similar questions.
As we see in these questions, philosophical questions and issues are of a specific nature and are not addressed in any science.
For example, no science can answer the question of what is reality or truth? Or what is justice? Says the answer. This is due to the special nature of these issues.
A major feature of philosophical subjects is their eternity and permanence.
There have always been and always will be, and in each period, according to the conditions of that era and the progress of various sciences, new answers to these problems are provided.
Philosophy is the study of reality, but not that aspect of reality that various sciences have dealt with.
For example, the science of physics about material objects in the sense that They have motion and stillness, and the science of biology studies and studies beings in terms of how they live.
But in philosophy the most general thing that can be dealt with is the existence of the subject of thought; In other words, in philosophy, the principle of existence is presented absolutely and without any conditions. For this reason, Aristotle says in his definition of philosophy: “Philosophy is the science of the state of beings, in the sense that they exist. One of the meanings of philosophy is its application to intellectual and intellectual talents that enable man to study various objects, events and affairs from a high and wide perspective, and thus, the events of the time with confidence and confidence. Take it easy. Philosophy in this sense is synonymous with wisdom Is.
Philosophy seeks to achieve the most fundamental truths of the universe. Ibn Sina defines it this way:
Philosophy is the knowledge of the truths of all things as much as possible for man.
Philosophy has always been considered a sacred and superhuman science from the first days of its life and it was considered a divine science. This view was prevalent even among Christian and Islamic philosophers; As Jorjani says:
Philosophy is to be like God to the extent of human ability and to achieve eternal happiness.
Philosophy in the beginning
As has been said, philosophy, from its earliest days, basically meant the love of knowledge and wisdom and was a science that sought to achieve the truths of the world and to practice what is best (ie, the right life).
The philosophy at the beginning of its life included all sciences and maintained this characteristic for centuries; As a philosopher was considered comprehensive of all knowledge. But gradually different sciences and sciences separated from it.
In ancient times, this philosophy, which was comprehensive of all sciences, was of two types:
Theoretical philosophy was divided into theology, mathematics, and natural sciences, which were called higher (higher), middle (middle), and lower (lower) sciences, respectively.
Practical philosophy also consisted of three parts:
management of the house
of civil politics (cities) (principles of governance)
Ethics in relation to the management of human personal affairs.
The management of the house was related to the management of family affairs, and civil policy or governance was related to the management of the affairs of the country.
The Kavian Scientific Research Association (KSRA) is a non-profit research organization to provide research / educational services in December 2013. The members of the community had formed a virtual group on the Viber social network. The core of the Kavian Scientific Association was formed with these members as founders. These individuals, led by Professor Siavosh Kaviani, decided to launch a scientific / research association with an emphasis on education.
KSRA research association, as a non-profit research firm, is committed to providing research services in the field of knowledge. The main beneficiaries of this association are public or private knowledge-based companies, students, researchers, researchers, professors, universities, and industrial and semi-industrial centers around the world.
Our main services Based on Education for all Spectrum people in the world. We want to make an integration between researches and educations. We believe education is the main right of Human beings. So our services should be concentrated on inclusive education.
The KSRA team partners with local under-served communities around the world to improve the access to and quality of knowledge based on education, amplify and augment learning programs where they exist, and create new opportunities for e-learning where traditional education systems are lacking or non-existent.
Abstract This article seeks to analyze Mulla Sadra’s theory of substantial motion (substantive motion) and to recount the criticisms about it in the field of reasons, supplies, and effects, its …