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Coronavirus Vaccine Tracker

Updated July 14, 2020

Vaccine tracker
Coronavirus Vaccine Tracker

Researchers around the world are developing more than 155 vaccines against the coronavirus, and 23 vaccines are in human trials. Vaccines typically require years of research and testing before reaching the clinic, but scientists are racing to produce a safe and effective vaccine by next year.

SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus
SARS-CoV-2
coronavirus

Work began in January with the deciphering of the SARS-CoV-2 genome. The first vaccine safety trials in humans started in March, but the road ahead remains uncertain. Some trials will fail, and others may end without a clear result. But a few may succeed in stimulating the immune system to produce effective antibodies against the virus.

Here is the status of all the vaccines that have reached trials in humans, along with a selection of promising vaccines still being tested in cells or animals.

New additions and recent updates:

•  Moderna plans to begin Phase III trials later this month. July 14

•  Canada-based Medicago launches Phase I trials. July 14

•  Australia’s University of Queensland moves to Phase I trials. July 13

•  China’s Anhui Zhifei Longcom began Phase II trials. July 10

•  Maryland-based Novavax announced U.S. government funding. July 7

The Vaccine Testing Process

The development cycle of a vaccine, from lab to the clinic.

Coronavirus Vaccine Tracker
Coronavirus Vaccine Tracker

PRECLINICAL TESTING: Scientists give the vaccine to animals such as mice or monkeys to see if it produces an immune response.

PHASE I SAFETY TRIALS: Scientists give the vaccine to a small number of people to test safety and dosage as well as to confirm that it stimulates the immune system.

PHASE II EXPANDED TRIALS: Scientists give the vaccine to hundreds of people split into groups, such as children and the elderly, to see if the vaccine acts differently in them. These trials further test the vaccine’s safety and ability to stimulate the immune system.

PHASE III EFFICACY TRIALS: Scientists give the vaccine to thousands of people and wait to see how many become infected, compared with volunteers who received a placebo. These trials can determine if the vaccine protects against the coronavirus.

APPROVAL: Regulators in each country review the trial results and decide whether to approve the vaccine or not. During a pandemic, a vaccine may receive emergency use authorization before getting formal approval.

WARP SPEED: The U.S. government’s Operation Warp Speed program is expected to name five or more vaccine projects to receive billions of dollars in federal funding before there’s proof that the vaccines work. We will update the tracker and label the Warp Speed projects when there is an official announcement.

COMBINED PHASES: Another way to accelerate vaccine development is to combine phases. Some coronavirus vaccines are now in Phase I/II trials, for example, in which they are tested for the first time on hundreds of people. (Note that our tracker would count a combined Phase I/II trial as both Phase I and Phase II.)

Filter the list of vaccines:
     

Genetic Vaccines

Vaccines that use one or more of the coronavirus’s genes to provoke an immune response.

Coronavirus Vaccine Tracker: DNA/RNA
Coronavirus Vaccine Tracker:

PHASE II

Moderna’s vaccine dazzled the stock market in May with Phase I data on just eight people, only to see its stock price drop when experts had a lukewarm reaction to the results. The vaccine uses messenger RNA (mRNA for short) to produce viral proteins. Phase III trials are set to begin July 27, and the company hopes to have vaccine doses ready by early 2021.
Updated July 14

PHASE I PHASE II

The German company BioNTech has entered into collaborations with Pfizer, based in New York, and the Chinese drug maker Fosun Pharma to develop their mRNA vaccine. On July 1, they announced that all the volunteers for their Phase I/II trial produced antibodies against SARS-CoV-2, while some experienced moderate side effects such as sleep disturbances and sore arms. The company expects to start Phase III trials in July. Based on the results so far, the F.D.A. gave the vaccine fast track status on July 13, which speeds up the approval process. If approved, Pfizer said they expect to manufacture up to 100 million doses of the vaccine by the end of this year, and potentially more than 1.2 billion doses by the end of 2021.
Updated July 13

 

PHASE I PHASE II

Imperial College London researchers have developed a “self-amplifying” RNA vaccine, which boosts production of a viral protein to stimulate the immune system. They began Phase I/II trials on June 15 and have partnered with Morningside Ventures to manufacture and distribute the vaccine through a new company called VacEquity Global Health. The researchers expect to know if the vaccine is effective by the end of the year.

 

PHASE I PHASE II

Indian vaccine-maker Zydus Cadila has created a DNA-based vaccine. On July 3 they announced approval to start human trials, becoming the second company in India to enter the Covid-19 vaccine race after Bharat Biotech.
Updated July 3

 

PHASE I PHASE II

On June 30, the Japanese biotechnology company AnGes announced they had started safety trials on a DNA-based vaccine, developed in partnership with Osaka University and Takara Bio.
Updated July 2

 

PHASE I

On June 30, the American company Inovio announced they had interim Phase I data on their DNA-based vaccine. They found no serious adverse effects, and measured an immune response in 34 out of 36 volunteers. They plan to start Phase II/III trials this summer.
Updated July 3

 

PHASE I

In March, the Trump administration unsuccessfully tried to entice CureVac to move its research from Germany to the United States. In June, the company launched Phase I trials of its mRNA vaccine. The company said its German facility can make hundreds of millions of vaccine doses a year.
Updated June 17

PHASE I

The Korean company Genexine started testing the safety of a DNA-based vaccine in June. They anticipate moving to Phase II trials in the fall.
Updated June 24

 

PHASE I

In June, Chinese researchers at the Academy of Military Medical SciencesSuzhou Abogen Biosciences and Walvax Biotechnology announced they would start their country’s first safety trials on a mRNA-based vaccine, called ARCoV. Earlier studies on monkeys reportedly showed protective effects.
Updated June 26

 

PRECLINICAL

The French pharmaceutical company Sanofi is developing an mRNA vaccine in partnership with Translate Bio. On June 23, they announced they were planning Phase I trials in the fall.

Viral Vector Vaccines

Vaccines that use a virus to deliver coronavirus genes into cells and provoke an immune response.

 

PHASE II PHASE III

vaccine in development by the British-Swedish company AstraZeneca and the University of Oxford is based on a chimpanzee adenovirus called ChAdOx1. The vaccine is in a Phase II/III trial in England and Phase III trials in Brazil and South Africa. The project may deliver emergency vaccines by October. In June, AstraZeneca said their total manufacturing capacity stands at two billion doses.
Updated June 24

 

PHASE II LIMITED APPROVAL

The Chinese company CanSino Biologics developed a vaccine based on an adenovirus called Ad5, in partnership with the Institute of Biology at the country’s Academy of Military Medical Sciences. In May, they published promising results from a Phase I safety trial. Unpublished data from Phase II trials demonstrated the vaccine produced a strong immune response, leading the Chinese military to approve it on June 25 for a year as a “specially needed drug.” CanSino would not say whether vaccination would be mandatory or optional for soldiers.
Updated June 29

 

PHASE I

The Gamaleya Research Institute, part of Russia’s Ministry of Health, launched a Phase I trial in June of a vaccine they call Gam-Covid-Vac Lyo. It is a combination of two adenoviruses, Ad5 and Ad26, both engineered with a coronavirus gene.

 

PRECLINICAL

Researchers at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center in Boston are testing an adenovirus called Ad26 in monkeys. Johnson & Johnson announced in June that they would start Phase I/II trials in late July.

 

PRECLINICAL

The Swiss company Novartis will manufacture a vaccine based on a gene therapy treatment developed by the Massachusetts Eye and Ear Hospital. A virus called an adeno-associated virus delivers coronavirus gene fragments into cells. Phase I trials are set to begin in late 2020.

 

PRECLINICAL

The American company Merck announced in May it would develop a vaccine from vesicular stomatitis viruses, the same approach it successfully used to produce the only approved vaccine for Ebola. The company is partnering with IAVI.

 

PRECLINICAL

Merck is also working with Themis Bioscience, an Austrian firm it is acquiring, to develop a second vaccine, which will use the measles virus to carry genetic material into patients’ cells.
Updated June 17

 

PRECLINICAL

Vaxart’s vaccine is an oral tablet containing an adenovirus that delivers coronavirus genes. They are preparing for Phase I trials this summer.
Updated June 26

Protein-Based Vaccines

Vaccines that use a coronavirus protein or a protein fragment to provoke an immune response.

 

PHASE II

In July, the Chinese company Anhui Zhifei Longcom began Phase II trials for a vaccine that is a combination of viral proteins and an adjuvant that stimulates the immune system. The company is part of Chongqing Zhifei Biological Products and has partnered with the Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences.
Updated July 10

 

PHASE I PHASE II

Maryland-based Novavax has developed a way to stick proteins onto microscopic particles. They’ve created vaccines for a number of different diseases using this platform, and their flu vaccine finished Phase III trials in March. The company launched trials for a Covid-19 vaccine in May, and the Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations has invested $384 million in the vaccine. On July 6, Novavax announced a U.S. government award of $1.6 billion to support clinical trials and manufacturing. If the trials succeed, Novavax expects to deliver 100 million doses for use in the United States by the first quarter of 2021. Plants in Europe and Asia would be able to satisfy more of the world’s demand.
Updated July 7

 

PHASE I

Clover Biopharmaceuticals has developed a vaccine containing a protein from coronaviruses. To further stimulate the immune system, the vaccine is being given in conjunction with so-called adjuvants made by British drugmaker GSK and the American company DynavaxInvestments from CEPI will support the development of manufacturing that could lead to the production of hundreds of millions of doses a year.

PHASE I

The Australian company Vaxine launched a Phase I trial in July. Their vaccine combines viral proteins with an adjuvant that stimulates immune cells.
Updated July 1

 

PHASE I

Canada-based Medicago uses plants to make vaccines. They inject genes into leaves, causing the plant cells to create protein shells that mimic viruses. In July, Medicago launched Phase I trials on a plant-based Covid-19 vaccine in combination with adjuvants from drug makers GSK and Dynavax. If the trial goes well, they plan to start Phase II/III trials in October.
Updated July 14

 

PHASE I

A vaccine from Australia’s University of Queensland delivers viral proteins altered to draw a stronger immune response. The university launched Phase I trials in July, combining the proteins with an adjuvant made by CSL. If the results are positive, CSL will advance late stage clinical trials and expects to make tens of millions of doses.
Updated July 14

 

PRECLINICAL

After the SARS epidemic in 2002, Baylor College of Medicine researchers began developing a vaccine that could prevent a new outbreak. Despite promising early results, support for the research disappeared. Because the coronaviruses that cause SARS and Covid-19 are very similar, the researchers are reviving the project in partnership with the Texas Children’s Hospital.

 

PRECLINICAL

A vaccine in development by the University of Pittsburgh, called PittCoVacc, is a skin patch tipped with 400 tiny needles made of sugar. When placed on the skin, the needles dissolve and deliver virus proteins into the body.

PRECLINICAL

In addition to their mRNA vaccine, Sanofi is developing a vaccine based on viral proteins. They are producing the proteins with engineered viruses that grow inside insect cells. GSK will supplement these proteins with adjuvants that stimulate the immune system. Sanofi has said it could produce at least 600 million doses a year if the vaccine succeeds in trials.
Updated June 23

Whole-Virus Vaccines

Vaccines that use a weakened or inactivated version of the coronavirus to provoke an immune response.

Coronavirus Vaccine Tracker:
Coronavirus Vaccine Tracker: Inactivated virus

 

PHASE III

After finding that an inactivated virus vaccine was safe and provoked an immune response, the state-owned Chinese company Sinopharm launched Phase III trials in July in the United Arab Emirates, where 15,000 people were scheduled to receive injections.
Updated July 14

 

PHASE III

The private Chinese company Sinovac Biotech is testing an inactivated vaccine called CoronaVac. In June the company announced that Phase I/II trials on 743 volunteers found no severe adverse effects and produced an immune response. Sinovac then launched a Phase III trial in Brazil in July. The company is also building a facility to manufacture up to 100 million doses annually.
Updated July 6

 

PHASE II

Researchers at the Institute of Medical Biology at the Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, which has invented vaccines for polio and hepatitis A, started a Phase II trial of an inactivated virus vaccine in June.
Updated June 23

 

PHASE I PHASE II

In collaboration with the Indian Council of Medical Research and the National Institute of Virology, the Indian company Bharat Biotech designed a vaccine called Covaxin. It is an inactivated rabies virus engineered to carry proteins from the coronavirus. Phase I/II trials are scheduled to begin this month. The Indian Council of Medical Research reportedly envisions having the vaccine ready for public use on August 15, but this target has been met with skepticism.
Updated July 1

Repurposed Vaccines

Vaccines already in use for other diseases that may also protect against Covid-19.

 

PHASE III

The Bacillus Calmette-Guerin vaccine was developed in the early 1900s as a protection against tuberculosis. The Murdoch Children’s Research Institute in Australia is conducting a Phase III trial, and several other trials are underway to see if the vaccine partly protects against the coronavirus.

About KSRA

The Kavian Scientific Research Association (KSRA) is a non-profit research organization to provide research / educational services in December 2013. The members of the community had formed a virtual group on the Viber social network. The core of the Kavian Scientific Association was formed with these members as founders. These individuals, led by Professor Siavosh Kaviani, decided to launch a scientific / research association with an emphasis on education.

KSRA research association, as a non-profit research firm, is committed to providing research services in the field of knowledge. The main beneficiaries of this association are public or private knowledge-based companies, students, researchers, researchers, professors, universities, and industrial and semi-industrial centers around the world.

Our main services Based on Education for all Spectrum people in the world. We want to make an integration between researches and educations. We believe education is the main right of Human beings. So our services should be concentrated on inclusive education.

The KSRA team partners with local under-served communities around the world to improve the access to and quality of knowledge based on education, amplify and augment learning programs where they exist, and create new opportunities for e-learning where traditional education systems are lacking or non-existent.

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Professor Siavosh Kaviani was born in 1961 in Tehran. He had a professorship. He holds a Ph.D. in Software Engineering from the QL University of Software Development Methodology and an honorary Ph.D. from the University of Chelsea.

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Somayeh Nosrati was born in 1982 in Tehran. She holds a Master's degree in artificial intelligence from Khatam University of Tehran.

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Nasim Gazerani was born in 1983 in Arak. She holds a Master's degree in Software Engineering from UM University of Malaysia.