COVID-19 Future Forecasting Using Supervised Machine Learning Models

COVID-19 Future Forecasting Using Supervised Machine Learning Models

Table of Contents


Machine learning (ML) based forecasting mechanisms have proved their significance to anticipate in perioperative outcomes to improve the decision making on the future course of actions. The ML models have long been used in many application domains which needed the identification and prioritization of adverse factors for a threat. Several prediction methods are being popularly used to handle forecasting problems. This study demonstrates the capability of ML models to forecast the number of upcoming patients affected by COVID-19 which is presently considered as a potential threat to mankind. In particular, four standard forecasting models, such as linear regression (LR), least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO), support vector machine (SVM), and exponential smoothing (ES) have been used in this study to forecast the threatening factors of COVID-19. Three types of predictions are made by each of the models, such as the number of newly infected cases, the number of deaths, and the number of recoveries in the next 10 days. The results produced by the study proves it a promising mechanism to use these methods for the current scenario of the COVID-19 pandemic. The results prove that the ES performs best among all the used models followed by LR and LASSO which performs well in forecasting the new confirmed cases, death rate as well as recovery rate, while SVM performs poorly in all the prediction scenarios given the available dataset.

Author Keywords

  • COVID-19,
  • exponential smoothing method,
  • future forecasting,
  • adjusted R² score,
  • supervised machine learning

IEEE Keywords

  • Predictive models,
  • Forecasting,
  • Linear regression,
  • Support vector machines,
  • Diseases,
  • Machine learning,
  • Prediction algorithms


Machine learning (ML) has proved itself as a prominent field of study over the last decade by solving many very complex and sophisticated real-world problems. The application areas included almost all the real-world domains such as healthcare, autonomous vehicle (AV), business applications, natural language processing (NLP), intelligent robots, gaming, climate modeling, voice, and image processing. The application areas included almost all the real-world domains such as healthcare, autonomous vehicle (AV), business applications, natural language processing (NLP), intelligent robots, gaming, climate modeling, voice, and image processing. ML algorithms’ learning is typically based on trial and error method quite opposite of conventional algorithms, which follows the programming instructions based on decision statements like if-else [1]. One of the most significant areas of ML is forecasting [2], numerous standard ML algorithms have been used in this area to guide the future course of actions needed in many application areas including weather forecasting, disease forecasting, stock market forecasting as well as disease prognosis.  Various regression and neural network models have wide applicability in predicting the conditions of patients in the future with a specific disease [3]. There are lots of studies performed for the prediction of different diseases using machine learning techniques such as coronary artery disease [4], cardiovascular disease prediction [5], and breast cancer prediction [6]. In particular, the study [7] is focused on live forecasting of COVID-19 confirmed cases, and the study [8] is also focused on the forecast of COVID-19 outbreak and early response. These prediction systems can be very helpful in decision-making to handle the present scenario to guide early interventions to manage these diseases very effectively.


The precariousness of the COVID-19 pandemic can ignite a massive global crisis. Some researchers and government agencies throughout the world have apprehensions that the pandemic can affect a large proportion of the world population [26], [27]. In this study, an ML-based prediction system has been proposed for predicting the risk of COVID-19 outbreak globally. The system analyses dataset containing the day-wise actual past data and makes predictions for upcoming days using machine learning algorithms. The results of the study prove that ES performs best in the current forecasting domain given the nature and size of the dataset. LR and LASSO also perform well for forecasting to some extent to predict death rate and confirm cases. According to the results of these two models, the death rates will increase in upcoming days, and recoveries rate will be slowed down. SVM produces poor results in all scenarios because of the ups and downs in the dataset values. It was very difficult to put an accurate hyperplane between the given values of the dataset. Overall we conclude that model predictions according to the current scenario are correct which may be helpful to understand the upcoming situation. The study forecasts thus can also be of great help for the authorities to take timely actions and make decisions to contain the COVID-19 crisis. This study will be enhanced continuously in the future course, next we plan to explore the prediction methodology using the updated dataset and use the most accurate and appropriate ML methods for forecasting. Real-time live forecasting will be one of the primary focuses in our future work.

About KSRA

The Kavian Scientific Research Association (KSRA) is a non-profit research organization to provide research / educational services in December 2013. The members of the community had formed a virtual group on the Viber social network. The core of the Kavian Scientific Association was formed with these members as founders. These individuals, led by Professor Siavosh Kaviani, decided to launch a scientific / research association with an emphasis on education.

KSRA research association, as a non-profit research firm, is committed to providing research services in the field of knowledge. The main beneficiaries of this association are public or private knowledge-based companies, students, researchers, researchers, professors, universities, and industrial and semi-industrial centers around the world.

Our main services Based on Education for all Spectrum people in the world. We want to make an integration between researches and educations. We believe education is the main right of Human beings. So our services should be concentrated on inclusive education.

The KSRA team partners with local under-served communities around the world to improve the access to and quality of knowledge based on education, amplify and augment learning programs where they exist, and create new opportunities for e-learning where traditional education systems are lacking or non-existent.

FULL Paper PDF file:

COVID-19 Future Forecasting Using Supervised Machine Learning Models







COVID-19 Future Forecasting Using Supervised Machine Learning Models

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in IEEE Access, vol. 8, pp. 101489-101499, 2020



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Professor Siavosh Kaviani was born in 1961 in Tehran. He had a professorship. He holds a Ph.D. in Software Engineering from the QL University of Software Development Methodology and an honorary Ph.D. from the University of Chelsea.

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Somayeh Nosrati was born in 1982 in Tehran. She holds a Master's degree in artificial intelligence from Khatam University of Tehran.

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Nasim Gazerani was born in 1983 in Arak. She holds a Master's degree in Software Engineering from UM University of Malaysia.