Preface: Enterprise architecture frameworks
An Enterprise Architecture Framework (EAF) maps all the software development processes within the enterprise and how they relate and interact to fulfill the enterprise’s mission. It provides organizations with the ability to understand and analyze weaknesses or inconsistencies to be identified and addressed. There are a number of already established EAFs in use today; some of these frameworks were developed for very specific areas, whereas others have broader functionality. This study provides a definition of several frameworks that can then be used for guidance in the selection of an EAF that meets the needed criteria.
What is the framework?
In general, the “framework” means classifying objects, and since our topic is related to the organization, the objects in question are descriptions of the aspects a dare a so the organization. These descriptions(models)canbeusedbyanyonewhoneedsthem___ provided that he is allowed to access them. The producers of such descriptions are experts in the field related to that model. The organization can be compared to a building, if we consider the construction of a property as an example, the owner has what he has in mind ( A general description of the shape and characteristics of the building ) and tells the building architect to make these descriptions into ” shapes and plans ” of the building. Now, the owner’s ideas about the building have become such that it can be built by the builder, in this way, the construction architecture process leads to the production It will be built.
For every organization, there are at least two frameworks, one framework of basic models that describes the ” current state ” of the organization and is called the existing architecture framework, and the other one that defines the ” future state ” ( after the application of organizational architecture) and that is called the optimal architectural framework. The important point is that if ” basic models ” are used to describe an organization, As long as there is no change in the profession of the organization, there is no need to change the models.
Zackman’s framework Zackman’s
architectural framework, which is considered to be a Mendeleev table of architectural models, is a reference framework that covers six aspects of information, processes, places, people, events, and goals. Zackman’s framework has played a key role in the creation of other frameworks, such as the “Federal Architecture Framework”. John Zackman, the presenter of the above framework, who is considered “organizational architecture” among the pioneers and who is considered the father of this science today, considers organizational architecture to be an inevitable necessity for large organizations.
Zackman’s framework is a comprehensive and general framework that can be used in many fields of application with its flexible features. This framework was a basic model for the development of the organizational architecture planning methodology in 1992, and the combination of these two created the federal framework (1999) followed by the Treasury framework (2000).
Although today the Zakman framework is somewhat outdated and does not meet the needs of the day, it is still considered a reference and source for organizational architecture, so that the new concepts and frameworks developed according to the needs of the day and new knowledge, the idea They have taken their initials from this framework and shaped it according to their special needs and conditions.
Today, John Zackman believes that his framework plays the role of “a thinking tool”, helping architects and managers to separate and organize domains and aspects. Zackman’s architectural framework has had a direct impact on most subsequent frameworks and architectural concepts.
Positive points of Zackman framework
– It is easy to learn and work with it.
– It is comprehensive and comprehensive, it covers all perspectives and aspects
– It is based on a set of basic descriptions called architectural models
Disadvantages of Zackman framework:
– There is no discussion about security, Zackman only a note on this matter There is no writing or explanation in this regard.
– A discussion about standards, rules, and transfer strategies has not been done. The motivation column can perhaps be combined with transitional programs and a strategic view.
– Some columns, such as time and motivation, are not as useful as other columns
– The framework does not have a specific methodology and tools.
– How to align information technology with business has not been determined.
– Failure to pay attention to the relationship between the aspects with each other, an issue that was taken into consideration later with the introduction of mapping matrices between the elements of the columns with each other by architectural methods.
– The framework (and models) have no rules.
In 1996, a law known as Klinger Cohen was passed in the US Congress, according to which all US federal departments and agencies were required to create their own information technology architecture. The responsibility of formulating, modifying, and implementing integrated information technology architecture in each organization was assigned to the chief information officer of that organization. In 1998, based on the same law, the Council of Chief Information Officers was required to provide a single solution for the development, support, and facilitation of the implementation of the information architecture of government systems. The Federal Organization Architecture Framework was developed and regulated in September 1999 by the Council of Chief Information Officers of the United States of America.
The need for organizational architecture can be seen in the emergence of large organizations, the need to design and develop complex information systems, the emergence of information systems with special purposes, and the importance of organizations ‘ flexibility against external pressures such as
He evaluated the change of business, the change of missions and organizational structures, and the rapid changes in technology.
The definition of enterprise architecture has changed and evolved in recent years. The US Electronic Government Act of 2002 describes the meaning of enterprise architecture as follows:
– A base of strategic information that defines the mission
– Information that is required to accomplish the mission
– Technologies that are required to accomplish the mission
– Transfer processes that It is necessary to implement new technologies in response to changing needs and includes three key parts:
architecture – Desirable architecture
– A transition plan
The Federal Organizational Architecture Practical Guide also uses the same definition, in addition to describing architecture as follows: “The structure of components, the relationships between them, and the rules and guidelines that govern their design and evolution.”
Today, a minimal understanding of, On the whole, there is an organizational architecture in such a way that the organizational architecture includes business models, processes, data, professional support systems, as well as technological infrastructures for both the existing and desirable architectures. Also, in the organizational architecture, there is a need for standards, security considerations, and a transition plan.
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Professor Siavosh Kaviani was born in 1961 in Tehran. He had a professorship. He holds a Ph.D. in Software Engineering from the QL University of Software Development Methodology and an honorary Ph.D. from the University of Chelsea.
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