Project managers must identify and manage a large number of related or interactive processes in order to operate effectively. Often the output of one process is the direct input (feed) of the next process. In the systematic identification and management of the processes used in a project and especially the interaction between these processes, which is called the process approach, it is suggested that when the related activities and resources are managed as a process, a more desirable and efficient result is obtained.
The most important advantages of using the project process approach:
- Continuous reduction of costs and shortening of work cycle times due to efficient use of resources.
- Improve operational results and make these results consistent and predictable
- Ability to address focused and prioritized opportunities for improving operations.
- Systematic definition of the activities necessary to achieve the desired result.
- Clear definition of responsibilities and accountability for the management of key and important activities.
The organization as an important organization whose macro processes include the production, promotion, and distribution of knowledge, in order to guide and control the processes in order to achieve their goals, in the first stage needs to document the processes. Therefore, two important parts of documenting and improving processes can be defined in order to document the processes in the first stage and then, according to the complete knowledge of the processes in the organization, can be improved.
Steps of implementing documentation based on PMBOK standard (project management standard):
1- Preparing a project concept document
The project concept document is the first document prepared for the project. The project concept document is used to start the planning phase. The main topics that should be mentioned in this document are:
– Project Description: A brief description of the project subject, project location, employer, project consultant, and contractor, etc.
– Challenges: In this section, the reasons for the need to implement the project are explained in a reasoned and step-by-step manner, and the following are stated as challenges in project implementation.
Project purpose, project implementation time, project implementation location, human resource estimation along with the proposed organizational chart, estimation of equipment required for project implementation, estimated cost of project implementation, employer, consultant or contractor constraints, …
- Suggested solutions: A general method or strategy for managing the project is described and the challenges are answered.
2- Business Case Document (B.C)
Economic analysis is a logical, purposeful, and comprehensive method for analyzing the various dimensions of a project. The purpose of economic analysis is to support the decision-making process and, in fact, to determine whether spending time and resources on the project is profitable or not. The main points that should be mentioned in this document are as follows.
– Profit-cost analysis: Profit-cost analysis is the heart of the economic analysis of the project. Benefit-cost analysis should be transparent and traceable. Benefit-cost analysis is divided into the following items.
1- Income analysis: cash flow or income earned in the project.
2- Cost analysis: Predicting the costs imposed during the project implementation
3- Profit analysis (project evaluation): evaluating the amount of revenue and estimated cost and evaluating the cash flow in the project
– Risk assessment: Key and important risks are identified at the macro level of the project and their effect on increasing or decreasing costs and cash flow of the project is investigated.
3- Project charter document
The project charter is a planning document that describes the project to managers and other stakeholders in the project and includes an initial description of the project implementation process. This document is used to gain the trust and financial support of the employer and other project stakeholders and is the framework of agreements between the employer and the project team. The project charter is the basis of a detailed project plan that sets out all the requirements of the project. The main points that should be mentioned in this document are as follows.
– Project Objectives: The objectives that are briefly mentioned in the previous sections should be stated in more detail.
Project scope: In this section, the level of a WBS (failure structure) of the project should be given along with a brief description of it so that deviations from the main project plan can be managed based on it.
– Project management strategy: The approach and general principles of project management should be summarized in this section. Items such as outsourcing of some activities, internal capacities, management structure, project management methodology, quality, and standards of project management professions can be mentioned in this section.
– Project team: The organizational chart of the project should be based on the required specializations and skills, the name of the project manager, group leaders, and other project members.
– Stakeholders of the project: the name of the employer, consultant, contractor, operator, etc. should be mentioned.
Project Scheduling: Project scheduling should be based on the failure structure (WBS) defined in the project along with the required milestones. External dependencies beyond the control of the project manager and the times in which stakeholders are involved in the project need to be included in the schedule.
Quality control: Explain the strategies and processes required to define and achieve quality standards.
– Risk management: A summary of the project risks along with an overview of the risk management program should be stated in this section.
– Communication program: The general goals of communication, important messages, and their recipients and audiences are described and a table of people who receive information along with the time, reasons, and how it is specified.
– Support activities: All the required support activities of the project that will help to implement the current activities of the project from the beginning to the end will be described.
– Documents: The title of the documents, the time of preparation, the person responsible for preparing and approving them, for the documentation of users, and project management, is mentioned.
– Project management: A list of facilities, office spaces, communication equipment, software, and computer hardware is prepared in this section.
Terms and Conditions: The legal status, ownership, obligations, and contractual terms and conditions of the project are described in this section.
– Appendix: In this section, the titles of the appendices are mentioned.
4- Project status report
The project status report is prepared periodically and is provided to the project stakeholders. The main purpose of preparing a project status report is to facilitate the project monitoring process by its stakeholders. This report not only describes the progress the project has made so far but also points out potential problems. The outlines that should be mentioned in this report include the following.
– Activities performed so far, based on WBS approved
– Measures taken so far, based on the criteria of quality management, communication program, support activities, risk management, and project management criteria mentioned in the previous section.
– Executive plan of activities that can be done in the next period.
– Measures that must be taken to prevent and improve the process of each of the above, in the coming period.
– Executive problems and provide solutions to solve them
– Cost and receipt performance of the project
– Predicting the cost and revenue performance of the project in the future
– Performance of manpower and machinery
– Predicting the performance of manpower and machinery in the future
– Presenting periodic technical reports and preparing a comprehensive database
5- Project completion report
This report is the last report prepared by the project team and formally compares the project performance with the original plan. Among the achievements of preparing and presenting this report, the following can be mentioned.
– Prepare a document for the project team that can evaluate its performance and through it improves its methods to implement similar projects.
– Preparation of a comprehensive document including a database of technical reports, how to implement the project in different project cycles, issues, and problems in the project implementation process, costs incurred during the project, comparison of revenue and cost curves during project implementation, risks anticipated at the beginning The project and its comparison, their occurrence rate, executive criteria for achieving the quality management process in the project, how to plan communications and prepare project management instructions.
– Use as lessons learned.
The outlines of what is mentioned in this document are as follows:
– Summary of performance
Introduction: A brief description of the project and technical and general information.
– Project management strategy: In this section, in addition to stating the project management strategy, it should be honestly mentioned about its evaluation.
– Project performance: Project performance in three areas of time, cost, and quality are examined. A summary report of the high levels of the project and key items and macro objectives should be provided. WBS is a great tool for comparing project schedules and project performance. The resulting value technique can be used to compare performance and cost plans. In the field of quality, it is possible to describe the main problems and the conformity of the final report (product) with the expectations of the stakeholders.
- Evaluation of plans and approaches: This evaluation is done in the field of communications, procurement, quality, and risk.
– Risk management: This section refers to the risks anticipated at the beginning of the project and located during the project and provides solutions to address them.
- Successes and failures: This section describes the lessons learned.
- Usable items: If a similar project occurs, which parts are repeatable?
- Conclusion: In this section, an internal audit of the project performance and its evaluation result is presented.
The Kavian Scientific Research Association (KSRA) is a non-profit research organization to provide research / educational services in December 2013. The members of the community had formed a virtual group on the Viber social network. The core of the Kavian Scientific Association was formed with these members as founders. These individuals, led by Professor Siavosh Kaviani, decided to launch a scientific / research association with an emphasis on education.
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