Environmental challenges are one of the greatest human problems in the world today. Environmental threats are associated with the widespread destruction of resources, habitats, forests, various plant and animal species, and the rapid population growth and human needs for food, shelter and shelter and other requests have caused damage to the growing environment. Take on faster. Environmental challenges range from pollution and water and soil to resource degradation, global warming, ozone depletion and the problems of the planet and most countries of the world. This review of the situation and environmental attitudes in the two countries, Denmark as a developed country and Bangladesh as a developing country is reviewed. Environmental concerns In many areas, there is a gap between Denmark and Bangladesh. Denmark has been able to solve many environmental problems through planning and remains to be addressed. Bangladesh has many water resources. Its soil and climate are being seriously damaged and programs have been prepared to control it at the level of education of the people. High population and poverty are one of the causes of environmental damage in Bangladesh
Natural resource degradation / Bangladesh / Denmark / Environmental attitude
From the beginning of his creation, man has always been in opposition to and sometimes interacts with nature. The struggle for survival, due to the unknown nature, enabled man to find ways to continue his life from within nature. Sometimes he succeeded in the battle with nature, and sometimes he was defeated in the war with it. With the development of human societies and the creation of different habitats along rivers, lakes, and ponds, human societies took on a new form and man learned how to form a two-way reflective relationship with nature, on the one hand with increasing population and the human need for food, shelter, and shelter have increased resource extraction and put pressure on resource capacity to meet human needs, causing damage to the environment.
The nature of environmental challenges has changed significantly in recent decades, while the nature of these environmental problems has long been known. These issues include pollution, biodiversity loss, global warming, and degradation. The ozone layer, tropical deforestation does not respect international borders, these issues have become a widespread concern among the people, the first line of concern was climate change in environmental issues in 2007.
To deal with these issues, which have a very destructive impact on the environment and human life, and two attitudes can significantly reduce the above issues.
- Attitudes and orientations of governments towards enacting environmental laws, regulations, and agreements at the international level
- Changing people’s attitudes with a positive and new view of the environment and public participation in the direction of friendship with the environment and solving environmental problems
Bangladesh is the ninth most populous country in the world and one of the most densely populated countries.
The People’s Republic of Bangladesh (Bengali: বাংলাদেশ বাংলাদেশ) is a country located in South Asia and East India, its capital is Dhaka and has a population of 148 million. The currency of Bangladesh is called Taka and its official language is Bengali. It is an Indo-Aryan language and has its own script. English is also widely used in higher education and the judiciary, and the upper and middle classes use it as a second language. 98% of the people of this country are from Bengal.
Formerly known as East Pakistan, it seceded from West Pakistan (modern-day Pakistan) on March 26, 1971, with the help of India, following the war for the liberation of Bangladesh.
89.7% of Bangladeshis are Muslim and the majority are Sunni. 9.2% of Bangladeshis also follow Hinduism. Since Islam was historically brought to Bangladesh by Sufis, followers of Sufi sects such as Deobandi and Hadith are also present in the country.
Bangladesh is the ninth most populous country in the world and one of the most densely populated countries. Bangladesh is located on the fertile lands of the Ganges River Delta and is prone to annual floods and mudslides.
Bangladesh is geographically completely surrounded by India and is strongly influenced by its location on the Indian subcontinent and has the most important relations in the international system with India. A small part of the country’s land border is also shared with Burma.
Bangladesh has a rich background in music, architecture, sculpture,, and painting. Bengali literature has been greatly influenced by the Persian language and literature.
Flag of Bangladesh
The flag of Bangladesh was first recognized on 01972-01-17 on January 17, 1972. It is known as the national flag and also has a 3: 5 aspect ratio.
The old borders of Bangladesh in South Asia are unknown. Geography books refer to a community of people called the Banga. Mahabharata mentions several conflicts in this community. Marco Polo also mentions Bangla in his memoirs. Other historians have referred to this geographical area by various letters, but the name Bengal was first used during the reign of Akbar shah; When the eastern province of Mokhals became known as Suba-Bangla. During the British occupation of India between 1854 and 1874, Bengal included the following parts: 1. Special Bengal; 2- Bihar state in present-day India and Erisa and Chutangpur regions in the west; 3- Part of Surma valley in the northeast.
In 1875, when the state of Assam was established, the Kachar and Silhat sections of the Surma Valley were separated from Bengal and ceded to the new state. In 1905, East Bengal and Assam were formed by a combination of fifteen parts of Bengal, Assam and Koch-Bihar, Tripura, and Manpur, with Dhaka becoming the seat of government.
It was known as East Pakistan during British rule in the Indian subcontinent until 1947. On March 26, 1971, after years of civil war, the country declared independence from Pakistan as the independent state of Bangladesh.
With the partition of British India in 1947, the area became independent of the eastern state of Pakistan due to the Muslim majority. East Pakistan found itself a victim of economic and ethnic injustice because of its 1,600-kilometer distance from the politically-dominated western province of Arduz. In 1971, this disgust sparked a civil war, and India’s aid to irregular Bengali forces led to the creation of an independent People’s Republic of Bangladesh (Free Bangalore) under the leadership of Sheikh Mujibah al-Rahman.
The assassination of this sheikh in 1975 eventually led to the rise to power of General Zia-ur-Rehman, who amended the constitution to create an Islamic state. The general himself was assassinated in 1981, and General Ershad came to power in 1982. In 1986, martial law was abolished and civilian government took over with amendments to the constitution. Following a period of unrest, Irshad was fired and charged with corruption. In March 1991, the Bangladesh National Party, led by Zia-ur-Rehman’s widow, won a multi-party election. Since then, Bangladesh’s system of government has shifted from a presidential to a parliamentary axis.
In the 2001 elections, the Bangladesh Nationalist Party, in alliance with the Islamist parties, won the election for the third time.
Khaleda Zia, the wife of General Zia-ur-Rehman, former President of Bangladesh, ruled the country from 1977 until her assassination in 1981. Following the assassination of General Zia-ur-Rehman, Khaleda Zia entered politics and took over the leadership of the Bangladesh Nationalist Party. Sheikh Hasina, daughter of Mujibah al-Rahman, the founder of Bangladesh, served as Prime Minister from 1996 to 2001 and was one of Bangladesh’s most important political leaders as the leader of the Awami League party. In the 2002 election, Tajuddin Ahmed won the presidency with a majority of votes.
From October 2006 and the end of Khaleda Zia’s rule, a transitional government took over Bangladesh. Under Bangladeshi law, if no new elections are held at the end of a parliamentary term, the caretaker government can take over for three months to pave the way for elections.
All of this delayed the transitional parliamentary elections scheduled for January 2007 due to bloody clashes between Nationalist Party and Awami League supporters, and declared a state of emergency in Bangladesh, calling for steps to clear the country of politics. Corruption will take place. For nearly two decades, political animosity between Sheikh Hosseineh and Khaleda Zia has been a source of unrest and instability in the country.
Dozens of Bangladeshi politicians have been arrested on corruption charges, including Tariq Rahman, the daughter of Khaleda Zia. In 2009, following the rise to power of Sheikh Husseini, Bangladeshi militias revolted. The uprising started in Dhaka and gradually spread to other cities in Bangladesh but was later completely suppressed. The reforms made by Sheikh Hosseina’s government to make Bangladesh’s constitution more secular have angered extremists in the country.
Bangladesh is located in southern Asia, on the Indian subcontinent. It is bordered by India to the north, east and west, and Burma to the southeast, with the Bay of Bengal to the south.
The capital is Dhaka with a population of 12,295,728. Bangladesh covers an area of 147,570 square kilometers and has a population of 150,448,340, which is a large proportion of the population density. Major cities in Bangladesh include Chittagong with 2,532,421, Khulna with 842,995, and Rajshahi with 727,083.
Bangladesh is divided into two natural areas: the vast alluvial plain that makes up 90% of the country and the eastern two-thirds of the Brahmaputra-Ganges Delta Plain, the largest delta in the world, extending north from the Bay of Bengal; And the second region is the Chhatagong Hills region, which is located in the southeastern corner of the country and covers about one-sixth of the land.
The country is naturally located in the flat plain of Bengal. Its proximity to the equator has caused monsoon rains and also has many rivers that play an important role in the country’s economy. In terms of climate, Bangladesh has a hot and humid climate, and due to its location along the Bay of Bengal and the Indian Ocean, the country is highly vulnerable to floods caused by the monsoon currents of the Indian Ocean in summer, and hundreds of people fall victim to these rains every year. They become monsoon.
The Ganges, the Brahmaputra (Jamuna), the Maghna, and the Padma are the most important rivers in Bangladesh and irrigate the country. The Ganges and Brahmaputra rivers, which originate in the Himalayas and flow into the Bay of Bengal. The Ganges River and the rivers that flow into it cover a large area of southwestern Bangladesh. None of Bangladesh’s rivers originate in the country, so Bangladesh does not have full control over the flow of rivers that irrigate the land; For example, the construction of a dam on the Ganges River in the Indian state of West Bengal has diverted significant amounts of water in favor of the state.
Numerous rivers are the most important natural landscape of Bangladesh and have significantly influenced the lifestyle of the people there. These rivers have irrigated large areas and created a suitable and cheap transportation system. Sedimentation of alluvial sediments of these rivers enriches the agricultural soil and their large fish stocks are an important food source for the inhabitants of this country. However, due to the continuous and sometimes rapid changes in the course of these rivers and their overflow, Bangladesh suffers a lot of damage.
However, the land of Bangladesh is very fertile and has made it possible for a large population to live. The southeastern parts of the country are covered with bamboo forests.
Bangladesh’s agriculture relies on monsoon rains. Eighty-two percent of Bangladesh’s population is engaged in agriculture, and rice and hemp are their products. Natural gas resources have recently been discovered deep in the Bay of Bengal. The country lacks significant mineral resources and underground reserves.
98% of the country’s race is made up of Bengalis. 89.7% of Bangladeshis are Muslim and the majority are Sunni. 9.2% of Bangladeshis also follow Hinduism. The official language of Bangladesh is Bengali, and although English is not official, it is known as a second language.
According to the latest reports from the Asian Development Bank, 95% of women in Bangladesh live below the poverty line and face difficult conditions.
It is estimated that more than 77 million Bangladeshis, about half of the country’s population, have been exposed to arsenic since the 1970s following the drilling of wells that allow them to use groundwater resources.
The currency of Bangladesh is the Taka with the component (Pisa). It is a member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), and Bangladesh exports hemp and hemp fibers.
Bangladesh is one of the poorest countries with a rapidly growing population and is heavily dependent on foreign aid. Agriculture and animal husbandry account for more than 70% of the population. Rice is produced on more than three-quarters of arable land. Despite the fertility of the land, crops are often destroyed by floods and hurricanes. In 1992, a major project was launched called the Flood Control Plan, which would change the course of rivers and raise their walls. The country’s major commercial crop is tea and hemp, with Bangladesh accounting for 90% of world hemp production. The mining industry is small, but there are natural gas reserves.
The Bangladesh Delta has waterfalls and tea fields and lush nature. Cox Beach, 150 km from Chittagong Harbor and its bazaar and Dhaka Zoo, is a landmark.
Traditional Bangladeshi architecture is reflected in the remnants of the Gurkhanid period. Historical monuments and structures such as Kosumba Mosque (965) in Rajshahi; Shah Mohammad Mosque (1091) in Agra Sandor; Dhaka Mosque and Lal Bagh Fort (1192-1191); The Seventy-Seven Domes Mosque in Bagrat and the Baby Fairy Tomb in Dhaka are among the architectural landmarks of the Islamic era in Bangladesh.
In Dhaka, rickshaws (man-made or motorized tricycles) were the most popular vehicles for women, but in 2002 the government banned the use of the vehicle in many cities.
Investigation of social and environmental indicators of weather conditions:
According to the BMP (Bangladesh metrological department) report made in 2012, the average annual temperature in the country is about 25 degrees Celsius. Its highest temperature is 45 ° C. Rainfall analysis from 1950 to 2011 by BMP shows that the average annual rainfall was more than 2428. The total rainfall occurred during the so-called rainy season.
Population and economy
Bangladesh has large population growth, the total population of the country in 2012 is about 152518015 people with a density of 1015 people per square kilometer and an annual growth of 1.37% (2012 BBS). Bangladesh’s urban population is about 28.6% of the total population of Bangladesh ( 2010 UNDP).
Over the past three decades, it has pursued a policy of reforming the market-controlled economy, with GDP (gross domestic product) growth projected at 6.71% in 2010-2011. Bangladesh’s gross per capita income in 2010-2011 was US $ 748 (BBS 2012). The national poverty line in Bangladesh has decreased by about 40% compared to 2005 and 2010. Bangladesh has made great strides in the Human Development Index. According to a 2010 UNDP report, the Human Development Index rose from 169th to 129th in the world and HDI from 308th. In 1980 to 5 /. Arrived in 2011.
Crops, irrigated lands, forests, rivers and marine ecosystems, natural gas, and coal are major natural resources in Bangladesh. National water suppliers use plenty of water to irrigate their fields during the dry season. Bangladesh has good oil and gas reserves. Natural gas is used for domestic use, transportation, and industrial purposes. The country is very rich in inland coastal resources and fishing and seafood.
Ecosystem and biodiversity
Bangladesh supports a wide range of ecosystems as follows:
Terrestrial ecosystem: Forest and hill ecosystem. Agricultural and horticultural ecosystems
Aquatic ecosystem: Permanent and seasonal water resources, rivers, lakes, mangrove coasts and estuaries, Mudflats and Charles coasts, and marine ecosystems.
The country has a great diversity of animals and plants, including 4061 species of flowering and scholastic plants, 653 species of fish, 34 species of amphibians, 154 species of reptiles, 650 species of birds and 121 species of mammals.
A number of species are international, such as sea elephants, Bengal tigers, crocodiles, dolphins, Bengal goats and other species, and migratory birds.
Bangladesh’s largest forests include evergreen tropical forests, semi-green forests, mangrove forests, and man-made forests of Homestead. . Forests account for about 5% of Bangladesh’s GDP (2012 FD.).
About 31% of Bangladesh is covered by forests.
|Hill forest||1.4 million Ha|
|Sal forest||0.12 million Ha|
|Village forest||0.27 million Ha|
|Mangrove forest||0.74 million Ha|
|Total||2.53 million Ha|
Land is one of Bangladesh’s largest resources. About 80% of the country consists of low and alluvial flatlands. There are hilly areas in the northeast and southeast.
The elevation is in the range of 0 to 90 meters above sea level, with a maximum altitude of 1230 meters in the southeast (2010 FAO).
65% of the land is agricultural, 17% is forest land and 8% is urban (2010 FAD).
Rivers are the rich source of fisheries and biodiversity in Bangladesh.
Water in Bangladesh plays an important role in the economic sector, such as agriculture, fishing, industry and trade, orientation, health. About 7% of the total area of the country is covered by rivers and other inland resources, and water bodies. There is a network of about 230 rivers in the country, of which about 54 rivers share with India and 3 rivers share with Myanmar. ).
Rivers in Bangladesh are rich sources of fisheries and biodiversity
One of the most important economic activities in Bangladesh is agriculture. Agriculture plays a vital role in the
Productivity, profitability, employment in rural logic, and poverty reduction in Bangladesh.
Private companies account for 21% of Bangladesh’s GDP.
Important agricultural products in Bangladesh include rice, barley, tea, sugar and wheat.
Food security is important in agricultural development in Bangladesh. Soil exploitation for about 30 to 40 years can lead to depletion of agricultural soil and water resources. Another important food source is fishing, which is thriving in Bangladesh.
Industrial and environmental development
Bangladesh is facing an explosion in industry and a wide range of industries. Natural resources in Bangladesh have created a combination of competitive labor and environmentally friendly trade. It is a very good place for companies looking for industrial activity in these two categories.
Bangladesh’s natural environment is under constant pressure due to unplanned urbanization and industrialization. Waste from industries and domestic resources causes the destruction of land, water and air quality in the country. Also, along with the wastes, increasing the use of chemicals to increase agricultural production has caused pollution and destruction of their surface and groundwater resources. People’s health is also threatened by these pollutions.
In the last decade, there has been a steady growth in the development of public health. Population growth has declined, life expectancy has increased, and mortality and HIV rates are on a good trend.
Bangladesh has taken good steps to educate and educate the people. Increasing the literate population in Bangladesh is one of the serious plans of the government.
Table of literacy levels above 7 years
Source: Ferdoush and Rahman 2011
The government has developed many schools at various levels in Bangladesh and there are 30 public universities in Bangladesh.
Environmental organizations in Bangladesh
Concepts of environmental education
Environmental education is a learning process that facilitates increasing people’s awareness and knowledge of the environment and related challenges to develop sufficient skills to meet existing challenges and increase attitudes, motivations, and commitments to make decisions and actions. It is appropriate (Zola, 2014). Environmental education is an effective tool for activating managers, government employees, NGOs, and community members to implement policies and protect the environment. Environmental education will help to create environmental awareness among people so that they gain the knowledge, skills, attitudes, motivation, and commitment to work together and solve current environmental problems (Shil et al. 2013). Currently, Bangladesh is threatened by the destruction of the human environment and the effects of climate change. Effective dissemination of environmental knowledge and information Facilitate policymakers and physicians to address multifaceted environmental challenges
The overall goal of environmental education is to maintain and ensure the integration and diversity of natural resources in a fair and sustainable manner (Salequzzaman and Davis, 2003).
The components of environmental education are as follows:
Awareness and sensitivity to the environment and environmental challenges (EPA, 2016).
Knowledge and understanding of the environment and environmental challenges ”(EPA, 2016).
Attitudes towards the environment and motivation to improve the quality of the environment,
Skills to identify and solve environmental problems (EPA, 2016).
Participate in activities that will help solve environmental problems (EPA, 2016).
The importance of environmental education
Advanced economic activities and the rapid expansion of urbanization have contributed to the negative effects on the environment in the form of soil degradation, deforestation, desertification, and other environmental pollution nationally and globally. Other harmful consequences for the environment due to intense human activities include acid rain, ozone depletion, and global warming.
Environmental education and awareness are essential to educating people about the functioning of environmental systems and the consequences of excessive human interference with the environment. “Education is important for promoting sustainable development and improving people’s capacity to address the environment and develop issues”, education as an essential process of “achieving environmental and ethical awareness, values and attitudes, skills And the behavior intended for sustainable development and public participation was effective in decision-making ”(Chapter 36) (UNEP, 2007). Lack of environmental education affects the achievement of sustainable development. Awareness-raising programs and activities also help to minimize the pollution of the human environment and hence to improve the environment as a whole.
Sustainable development and environmental protection goals
Bangladesh has developed environmental education programs for the current century.
Global initiatives in environmental education
In 1975, UNESCO and UNEP launched the International Environmental Education Program (IEEP) to integrate environmental education into primary and secondary curricula, teacher education, university general education, technical and vocational education, and non-vocational education. The official had launched an emphasis. Dealing with global environmental problems requires a systematic process that called for changes in traditional education systems and its design in 2002, the UN General Assembly, in its 57th session, declared the United Nations Decade of Education for Sustainable Development, Stressed that education assistance is essential to achieve sustainable development 2005-2014, (DESD). DESD has been implemented in several member countries with the vision of addressing environmental challenges through the introduction of environmental education programs. Africa, for example, is a region where the DESD was implemented. Africa faced a range of different environmental challenges, including increasing climate vulnerability due to depletion of biological resources (habitat loss, over-harvesting of selected resources, illegal activities, and other environmental problems.
Given the existing environmental challenges, UNEP, with the active participation of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), the United Nations University (UNU), and the African University Association (AAU), among other partners, established the flow environment. Cognitive and Sustainable Development at African University (MESA). This program includes training from instructors’ programs, a leadership program, and on-site university innovation. The overall goal of MESA is “to promote environmental integration and sustainability concerns in the teaching, research and community engagement, and management of African universities, as well as to enhance student engagement and participation in sustainability activities both inside and outside the university” (Lotz To- Sisitka et al. 2015). In 2005, the DESD regional launch took place in Bahrain. This is an opportunity for the countries of the region to exchange views and engage in dialogue. In 2008, a regional scaffolding guidance network of training for sustainable development was launched (UNESCO, 2007)
Several other countries have made efforts to integrate environmental issues into their curricula, observing the improvement of environmental conditions in their respective countries. In India, for example, Environmental Education (EE), as per any of the esteemed directives of the Supreme Court of India, has been integrated into the formal school education system as a regular course. It is worth noting that several environmental education programs were implemented before this order. One program is entitled “Environment to School Education (EOSE)” which is designed to “give school children an immediate orientation to the environment using examples and materials specific to each area”.
Environmental education and awareness
Transforming training programs to address sustainable development. Thus, the ESD-based curriculum will be very challenging in a traditional school due to studies in a disciplinary framework (Hawk, 2013).
Many public universities offer basic education by which environmental education started in the education system for many years. However, in 1996, Kholna University introduced the first course in environmental sciences. The course curriculum includes the principles of environmentally sustainable development with an emphasis on physical, chemical, biological, social, economic, and ethical processes and systems. However, the university does not have enough teaching staff and Internet access (Salequzzaman and Davis, 2003). Therefore, students have limited access to updated information on environmental processes. Several universities are currently launching an initiative to offer courses in environmental science, management, and sustainable development. However, emerging issues such as climate change should be included as an integral part of the course curriculum.
Public outlook on environmental issues in Bangladesh
Currently, environmental problems including the effects of climate change, water, air, soil pollution, biodiversity loss, land degradation, deforestation, ecosystem change, etc. are emerging issues to minimize the environmental degradation that is needed in Prioritize. To minimize the level of environmental pollution, policies and strategies need to be implemented to address these challenges and effectively disseminate environmental knowledge and education. The majority of Bangladeshis lack sufficient knowledge of the environment and the consequences of environmental problems. Educational institutions have made efforts to transfer knowledge in the environmental management system. As mentioned above, educational programs are designed that explicitly relate knowledge to environmental problems and socio-economic challenges.
A study by Sarker (2011) examines the environmental attitudes of high school students in Bangladesh. These findings indicate that students were not aware of the degradation of the human environment. Second-level textbook content to illustrate the concept and related challenges of failed human environmental degradation. Lack of knowledge in the environmental management system can be attributed to such an attitude (Sarker, 2011).
Another study was conducted to extract perceptions of environmental education and awareness among local people from the Tangil area. These findings show that the majority of people have traditional knowledge about environmental issues. However, such knowledge is only appreciated in the education system. Without the involvement of the local community, it is unlikely to achieve any sustainable environmental management to ensure the continuity of goods and services achieved from the environment, which is essential to sustain significant economic growth.
The effects of climate change
The Fourth Assessment Report by the International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), published in 2007, showed that climate change due to human intervention is accelerating and contributing to a significant negative impact. Such is the intensification of specific natural disasters (Kolmannskog and Trebbi, 2010). Bangladesh is vulnerable to climate change and is severely affected primarily by the specific intensification of natural disasters such as hurricanes and salinity.
Meteorological SAARC showed that the trend of sea-level rise in millimeters in 4.0mm 6.0mm and 7.8mm / year, based on 22 years of historical data, at three tidal stations of Bangladesh including Hiron Point, Ganga Character, and Cox Market Sequence (October and BATEN, 2012). In the coastal area, the area was 144085 and 83416 hectares were destroyed and trampled. Soil salinity has a positive effect on agriculture in Bangladesh.
Climate-induced natural disasters also have adverse effects on the country. A recent study showed that the annual frequency of tropical storms increased to 5 storms per year between 1985 and 2009 (Chaudhry et al. 2012). The effects of the storm have negative effects on the economic and social developments of the country. In 2007, the impact of the loss and damage storm was estimated at 2.6% of GDP (World Bank, 2010).
The Bangladeshi government has developed legal frameworks for crisis management, which include the following.
The Crisis Management Act 2012, the Disaster Management Orders (SOD), the Comprehensive Crisis Management Plan (CDMP), the National Crisis Management Plan (2010-2015), and the National Crisis Management Policy 2015. However, these policies and strategies are evolving. Not implemented effectively. In addition, there is a lack of coordination between the various ministries. As a result, policymakers and environmentalists are unaware of each other’s work. And the implementation of policies is also delayed.
The effects of climate change will be greater in the future, such as rising temperatures, changes in rainfall patterns, heat and cold waves, soil erosion, droughts, and frequent climate disasters.
Environmental pollution is another area of serious environmental concern in Bangladesh, including air and soil. The increase in the number of the motor and industrial vehicles is one of the main causes of air pollution in Bangladesh. One of the concerns is air pollution that is produced during cooking with insufficient ventilation facilities due to the use of biomass fuels. Industrial gases and car exhaust are the primary sources of outdoor air pollution. The air quality in many cities is very polluted and unhealthy conditions remain for most of the time.
Water pollution is one of the most serious environmental hazards in Bangladesh. Dumping methods of untreated municipal waste, hospital waste, toxic environmental discharges are the main causes of water pollution. In Bangladesh, the industrial areas are Dhaka, Chittagong, Khulna, and Bogra. Industries that contribute to severe water pollution include dyeing, tanning, food, pulp, and paper industries, fertilizers and pesticides, etc. More than 200 rivers in Bangladesh have been severely polluted due to untreated industrial waste. About 700 tanneries in Dhaka Dhaka are discharging 16,000 cubic meters of toxic waste into the blue body. The Environmental Protection Agency has listed 1176 factories that produce pollution in the country (Alam, 2009)
About 4,000-4,500 tons of solid waste are being produced and half of the waste is dumped into the river. More than 500 hospitals and clinics dump untreated medical and toxic waste into the river (Alam, 2009). Solid waste may cause long-term toxicity to the soil through leakage, infiltration, and seepage.
In Bangladesh, about 97% of people use groundwater as their main source of drinking water. More than half (52%) of the study population drank well water containing> 50ug / L arsenic and more than two-thirds (70%) drank well water containing> 10ug / L arsenic. Acceptable levels of arsenic in drinking water are 0.05mg / L for Bangladesh however; Some places have 70% higher standards. About 80 million people are at risk for arsenic contamination (Science, 2009)
The government is also taking immediate action to combat arsenic contamination from groundwater and many arsenic-contaminated areas. Health facilities have also been improved in urban and rural areas.
In addition, excessive use of fertilizers and pesticides has also caused soil pollution and natural erosion of production capacity in many places.
Loss of biodiversity
In Bangladesh forest cover is about 17.5% however; 6% of them are gone. The annual deforestation rate is about 3.3%, which is the highest rate in Southeast Asia (Mokul, 2007). Elimination of forest cover on a larger scale also changes the hydrology of the region in two ways. First of all, it will change the water and energy balance of the area and the local soil and air temperature of the area and ultimately lead to a decrease in rainfall in the area. Second of all, including dysfunction of water-to-sewage balance, change runoff. (Tinker et al., 1996)
Increasing deforestation greatly reduces the forest’s ability to store carbon, which ultimately alters the composition of the atmosphere. In addition, the impact of water changes and the negative impact on the environmental performance of the forest ecosystem. Causes of deforestation are improper implementation of forest policy, laws, illegal logging, increased population density, and lack of awareness. In addition, the nature of deforestation in the country is strongly influenced by the existence of biodiversity. IUCN Badr (2000) listed a total of 40 species of domestic mammals, 41 species of birds, 58 species of reptiles, and 8 species of amphibians as endangered species. These numbers show that the country’s biodiversity is at high risk of extinction.
Bangladesh’s urban population is rising at an alarming rate. According to the 2011 population and housing, a total of 35094684 (modified) people living in urban areas is about 23.43% of the total population of the country (BBS, 2011). This urban population is more than half of their life in four major cities such as Dhaka, Chittagong, Khulna and Rajshahi. Rapid urbanization has posed a serious threat to the urban environment. It has been observed that this area included water rapids, wetlands, arable lands, and vegetation by 16.2%, 11.5%, 34.1%, and 13.6% between 1975 and 1992. In 1992, the area of wetlands and Vegetation was 28% and 13.7%, respectively. Between 1975 and 2009, agricultural lands decreased by about 636.05 acres, wetlands/plains by 141.35 acres, water by 101.07 acres, and vacant lands by 13.58 acres. Thus, agricultural land fell from 51.54% in 1975 to 10.67% in 2009. The decrease in the wetland was also reduced to 141.35 acres (diluted in 2014).
Rapid and unplanned urbanization has led to flood risk in cities due to the lack of wetlands and other water. Urbanization has also led to the rapid spread of severe criticism of commercial and residential buildings in major cities. Hence, environmental degradation is very visible in unplanned urbanization in the country. Rapid urbanization has weakened the ability of the city government to provide basic facilities to the population, which has contributed to huge environmental problems.
Environmental education policies:
Within the framework of the government, Bangladesh has demonstrated its commitment to improving the environment and combating the negative effects of climate change through various policies and strategies. The National Plan states: to transfer environmental education to all teachers and students and to support the implementation of specific and well-known measures of women’s participation in each educational phase. There is no specific government policy on environmental education in Bangladesh. However, the Environmental Policy (1992) includes the following statement in environmental education
- – Initiate widespread awareness about the protection and sustainable use of the environment and natural resources. To determine the inclusion and dissemination of environmental knowledge and information in the media and official systems and education information.
- – To motivate the active and spontaneous participation of people in all activities related to environmental management.
- – To combine environmental issues in training programs designed for government and private sector officials and industrial and commercial workers.
- – To encourage research and technology invention activities to ensure long-term sustainable use of natural resources.
- – To ensure that environmental issues are considered and developed by research institutes.
National Education Policy (2010) Established a school with the aim of creating an integrated system and introducing various issues. Curriculum prescribing and curriculum for teaching basic subjects including Bangladesh, English, ethics, Bangladesh studies, mathematics, social environment, natural environment with a focus on climate change, science, and information technology, However, the concept of development Environmentally sustainable is not recognized in the document. (Ministry of Education, 2010).
National Action Plan Adaptation Program (2005) The inclusion of climate change issues in the curriculum has been identified in secondary and tertiary education institutions (MOEF, 2005). Bangladesh and the Climate Change Strategy and Action Plan (specifically highlighting the importance of knowledge generation in climate change (BCCSAP-2009).
Currently, several schools and universities have strategies/policies/rules for environmental education and awareness
Climate change and other environmental issues are included in the curriculum.
- – Environmental action and the movement of environmental issues are integrated into the agenda of Bangladesh civil society. Environmental activists, NGOs, community members, journalists are playing an active role in raising awareness and addressing the country’s environmental issues. In addition, non-resident Bangladeshis (NRBs) are also facing crises. They have contributed socially and politically, as well as expanded their cooperation with Bangladeshi Residents (RBs) to solve environmental problems.
Number of environmental measures in Bangladesh
A) Remove the two-stroke tricycle with a stroller. Dhaka In 2000, air quality in Dhaka County had deteriorated significantly, largely due to over-emissions from the three-wheeled carriage. In 2003, the Bangladeshi government banned the tricycle after widespread protests from members of the community and environmental activists. Pollution emissions are reduced by 25% since the removal of the three rickshaw automatic wheels (Salequzzaman and Davis, 2003). The initiative significantly improved air quality in cities and in Dhaka in general.
B) Start a movement to save Buriganga
The Buriganga River is considered the heart of Dhaka County. Historically, the River P is a sustainable livelihood for Dhaka residents; however; It suffers from excessive discharges of industrial waste and untreated sewage through the river. In 1988, an embankment was built in Dhaka to protect the city against flooding from the river. Buriganga was occupied by landless owners, and investors raped it after building an embankment, and the river has narrowed to this day. In addition, untreated discharges of industrial and municipal waste into the river have disrupted the pollution capacity of these systems. A resident and non-resident Bangladesh formed a committee called the “Buriganga Rescue Movement”. The members of the committee said: “Mass movements and demonstrations against the rape and uncontrolled dumping of untreated industrial and municipal waste into the river have taken place.” At the beginning of 2000, the government agreed to take action against rape and pollution (Alam, 2003).
C) Preservation of the cultural/historical heritage of the Ottoman Uddyan Dhaka and other natural and cultural/historical heritage that was encroached upon and used for commercial purposes. Community members and environmental activists staged mass movements against the encroachment on historical and cultural heritage and provided environmental education and awareness to 15 sites in Dhaka. Such a move forced the government to take environmental measures, including halting the construction of a house for the speaker of parliament in front of parliament. (Salequzzaman and Davis, 2003).
D) Prohibition of the use of polyethylene bags under
During the 1980s, polyethylene bags were widely used. Low-cost investment and the return on big profits have led to the expansion of the industry over the years. The number of factories increased from 16 to -300 during 1984 and 1990, respectively. During 1999-2000, about 9.3 million bags were discarded in Dhaka County. Due to a lack of environmental awareness and education, these bags were dumped on the street. About 10-15% of the bag was thrown away through the trash and the rest was emptied and placed in sewers and open spaces. Polyethylene bags had blocked 80% of the drainage system of Dhaka County. During floods, blocked drainage systems exacerbated many problems such as water and sewage entering the diverted drainage water. This in turn has led to the spread of diarrhea and other water-related diseases. Due to the problems mentioned, environmental groups have been using polyethylene bags since 1998. In 2002, the Bangladeshi government banned the production of polyethylene bags (Salequzzaman and Davis, 2003).
These are four examples of the benefits of community mobilization, environmental awareness, and national conscience. However, there is a greater need to disseminate environmental knowledge and skills in order to achieve sustainable environmental development.