HCI Requirements for Young Primary School CALL Learners

HCI Requirements for Young Primary School CALL Learners

Table of Contents


This paper looks at the HCI requirements of young learners in the context of Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) resources. It explains the motivation behind the project and the specific deployment context. It outlines some key components that must be taken into account when developing materials for this learner group. For example, the learners cannot read, so no text can be used on the screen. Colors and images are very important to make the material attractive and intuitive for the users. It shows that using HCI observations from other researchers, along with a structured approach, combined with an agile paradigm can produce useful, usable CALL resources in a limited resource context.


young learners, HCI, CALL, primary school, agile paradigm


This paper looks at the Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) HCI requirements for young primary school learners. It outlines the deployment context of the CALL resources and the particular HCI considerations that have to be taken into account when developing resources for young learners. Young learners differ from adult learners in several respects and psychology, art, design, physiology, and ergonomics must be taken into account when considering their HCI requirements.

From a psychological point of view, it is important to understand the learners and their requirements, in order to design suitable CALL resources for them. Designing and developing CALL resources for any user group must include analysis, design, development, testing, and implementation stages [1]. The analysis phase for this project was carried out in conjunction with the class teacher and it was determined that there was a learner need and that it was feasible to build CALL resources for the learners. In this scenario, the pedagogical design was driven by the teacher, who wanted CALL resources that were aligned with her classroom teaching. The lack of integration of CALL resources with classroom activities is one of the reasons why CALL resources are not as successful as they should be in the primary school context [2].

Obviously, the User Interface (UI) has to take into account the preferred aesthetics of the target users (which may differ from adult learners). For example, colors, font size, buttons, text (or no text) are some areas of difference with adult learners. An agile software development paradigm was used in the development of the CALL resources for a number of reasons. An agile paradigm is useful when dealing with an unfamiliar context, so it was useful in this project. Young learners have a different physiology than adult learners and this too must be taken into consideration when design CALL resources for them. Also, ergonomics are just as important for young learners as they are for adult learners, although sometimes there is limited scope to change the ergonomics of the deployment context. Testing is a key part of any software development and it was important to carry out both formative and summative testing as part of the project. The implementation phase of the project involved first training the learners with the resources and then letting them use them at their own pace.  This paper provides an overview of the project from an HCI perspective, and outlines what worked in this context and provides some suggestions for future projects in this domain.


In summary, this paper discusses how a CALL authoring tool was adapted and customised to the needs of this learner group. Some specific HCI considerations for the target group include using bright colors and ‘obvious’ images for buttons as no text could be used. The manual/mouse dexterity of the learners must be taken into account so that their effort is focused on answering the exercises and not the actual process of system input. This paper reports on the deployment of this young learner-oriented HCI CALL resources and the lessons learned in the process. It shows that it is possible to produce and deploy useful materials in a relatively short space of time and with very limited resources. Some suggestions for future research in this area include enhanced customization and audio features, which could make the materials more attractive and assessable to the learners. The UI in this project looks very simple because it is very simple. However, simple is not a bad thing and in this case, it was exactly what was required and it as what worked.

About KSRA

The Kavian Scientific Research Association (KSRA) is a non-profit research organization to provide research / educational services in December 2013. The members of the community had formed a virtual group on the Viber social network. The core of the Kavian Scientific Association was formed with these members as founders. These individuals, led by Professor Siavosh Kaviani, decided to launch a scientific / research association with an emphasis on education.

KSRA research association, as a non-profit research firm, is committed to providing research services in the field of knowledge. The main beneficiaries of this association are public or private knowledge-based companies, students, researchers, researchers, professors, universities, and industrial and semi-industrial centers around the world.

Our main services Based on Education for all Spectrum people in the world. We want to make an integration between researches and educations. We believe education is the main right of Human beings. So our services should be concentrated on inclusive education.

The KSRA team partners with local under-served communities around the world to improve the access to and quality of knowledge based on education, amplify and augment learning programs where they exist, and create new opportunities for e-learning where traditional education systems are lacking or non-existent.

FULL Paper PDF file:


HCI Requirements for Young Primary School CALL Learners



Monica Ward School of Computing, Dublin City University, Ireland




HCI Requirements for Young Primary School CALL Learners

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Nasim Gazerani was born in 1983 in Arak. She holds a Master's degree in Software Engineering from UM University of Malaysia.

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Professor Siavosh Kaviani was born in 1961 in Tehran. He had a professorship. He holds a Ph.D. in Software Engineering from the QL University of Software Development Methodology and an honorary Ph.D. from the University of Chelsea.

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Somayeh Nosrati was born in 1982 in Tehran. She holds a Master's degree in artificial intelligence from Khatam University of Tehran.