Smart home systems have achieved great popularity in recent years as they increase the comfort and quality of life. Significant developments on the Internet of Things have captured the electronic industry and has become one of the most important applications of smart home systems. One of the IoT-based systems used in smart homes is smart lighting. Smart lighting is widely used and refers to lighting technology with an increased level of functionality such as dimming or on/off control remotely to enhance user comfort and save energy. In this study, the effects of smart LED bulbs used in smart lighting systems on energy efficiency are investigated. Then, power consumption on different colors produced by the smart LED bulb is investigated. It is seen that different colors produced by the smart LED bulb have different power consumption. Also, three case studies are considered with a comprehensive comparison between halogen, CFL, LED, and smart LED in terms of energy saving. It is seen that a smart LED bulb has the lowest energy consumption only when it is dimmed and is remotely controlled.
- energy efficiency,
- internet of things,
- lighting comparisons,
- power consumption,
- smart home,
- smart lighting
- Light-emitting diodes,
- Smart homes,
- Power demand,
- Intelligent sensors,
- Medical services
The concept of smart home refers to a convenient home technology where appliances and devices can be automatically controlled remotely from anywhere with an internet infrastructure using a mobile phone, laptop or another networked device . There are many alternative names for “Smart Home” in the literature and on the web such as “Intelligent Buildings”, “Automated Homes or Home Automation”, “Domotics”, “Smart House”, “Adaptive Home”, “Aware House”, “Integrated Home Systems”, “Connected Home” and “Green Building”, etc. A lack of clarity in the terminology and the difference between these definitions, especially “smart” and “intelligent” are discussed in [2-3-4].
Smart homes are equipped with advanced automatic systems for multiple preprogrammed tasks and operations such as heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems, lighting, plugs, and temperature controls, etc. . The organization of this study is prepared as follows: Section II and Section IIIdescribe the smart home applications and IoT-based smart home, respectively. Section IV presents the smart lighting systems with detailed explanations. Section V shows the experimental works and results. Finally, concluding remarks with the possible future studies are given in Section VI.
SMART HOME APPLICATIONS
Smart homes are generally classified into four main functional areas of services as security& safety, health care, energy efficiency & management, and entertainment [6-7-8].
Efficiency and Energy Management
According to the IEA 2017 report, the energy used for heating and cooling in industry and buildings accounts for approximately 40% of the total energy consumption. Besides, approximately 65% of this demand is met by fossil fuel sources. Energy consumption in buildings is about one-third of the total energy consumption in the world. Moreover, lighting accounts for 19% of electricity consumption worldwide. It is estimated that energy consumption will increase in the future. Smart homes are seen as an opportunity to reduce energy consumption in buildings. Some research has revealed that smart home technologies can save up to 30% of energy in homes and buildings . Smart sensors in the buildings allow users to monitor and control their energy consumption in real-time such as lighting, heating, and cooling. Users can monitor the distribution of energy consumption of their homes and optimize their systems. Smart plugs, smart thermostats, and smart lighting systems are also used for energy management within the scope of smart homes. Smart homes can save energy by encouraging users to change their habits and behaviors or by automatically managing their systems in order to provide comfort at the desired setting. The main part of efficiency and energy management is to reduce the consumption and cost of the energy of the households/users without compromising the user’s comfort and well-being.
Security and Safety
In line with the needs of the households/users, the smart home has the ability to collect information about the movements of users through cameras and sensors. The smart home is equipped with multiple indoor and outdoor cameras, smart sensors, video surveillance, alarming and remote monitoring. It can also be controlled both internally and externally via these systems. Security systems can be customized according to users’ preferences.
Security systems and services can be used to detect and track both homeowners and unwanted visitors. These systems protect against undesirable visitors, damage, and danger. The purpose of monitoring the homeowners is often used for detecting occupational fall accidents instantaneously in real-time.
When smart sensors detect abnormal conditions such as gas and water leaks, controllers can shut down the appropriate devices, trigger the alarm, and inform the homeowners remotely .
Sustainability of healthy life is undoubted of great importance to people. With increasing age, the need for medical support and medical service also increases, which can lead to frequent unplanned visits to doctors. Recent advances in the Internet of Things (IoT) and wearable technology play a significant role in designing appropriate healthy systems for the elderly and people in need of nursing care. These technologies have the potential to increase and improve the quality of life of the elderly population while reducing the burden on the healthcare systems and minimizing operating costs. Research around the IoT in the healthcare system has been focused on monitoring patients with specific, chronic conditions that have a strong impact on the quality of life as patients age, such as those with Parkinson’s disease and diabetes [12-13]. Moreover, IoT and wearable technologies have features such as preventing a fall, detecting a fall, and monitoring elderly people or people in need of nursing care.
Smart homes provide users with a smart entertainment experience that connects and automates all audio and video devices with a single remote control. Users can watch their favorite TV show or movie with the press of a button. They can easily control their music and/or entertainment from all of their favorite devices. Besides, smart homes allow users to deliver superior sound, stunning 4K video, and remarkable entertainment experience in every room throughout the house without the clutter. For example, a scenario such as “after working long hours at work, all you have to do is go home, dim your lights and play your favorite movie, TV show or favorite songs, all from a single screen” can be created for smart homes.
Energy consumption increases globally due to the ever-increasing demand in developed and developing countries. Energy consumption in the buildings is about one-third of the total energy consumption in the world and IoT-based smart devices are seen as an opportunity to reduce energy consumption and energy saving in the building. One of the IoT-based devices used in smart homes is a smart LED bulb. A smart bulb is an internet-capable LED light bulb that allows lighting to be customized, scheduled, and controlled remotely. According to the measurements performed on two smart LED bulbs, when these devices are turned off, it is observed that they both consume 1 W since they both have Wi-Fi modules. It is seen that the power consumption of a smart LED bulb is dependent on the adjusted color setting or combination of colors. According to the results, red, green, or blue is chosen, the smart LED bulb consumes about 4.3 W, while orange, purple or white is chosen, smart LED bulb consumes 4.77 W, 6.76 W and 9.71, respectively. Since white light contains all the wavelengths of the visible spectrum, it uses the most power. Three case studies have been conducted with a comprehensive comparison between halogen, CFL, LED, and smart LED in terms of energy saving. According to the results, a smart LED bulb contributes to additional energy savings compared to conventional LED bulbs of around 57.44%when it is dimmed and is remotely controlled. When a smart LED bulb is dimmed and remotely controlled, it offers an energy saving of 91.32%, 75.55%, and 57.44% compared to halogen, CFL, and LED bulbs, respectively.
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FULL Paper PDF file:IoT-Based Energy Efficiency in smart HomesbySmartLighting Solutions
O. Ayan and B. Turkey
IoT-Based Energy Efficiency in smart HomesbySmartLighting Solutions
2020 21st International Symposium on Electrical Apparatus & Technologies (SIELA), Bourgas, Bulgaria, 2020, pp. 1-5,
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Somayeh Nosrati was born in 1982 in Tehran. She holds a Master's degree in artificial intelligence from Khatam University of Tehran.
Professor Siavosh Kaviani was born in 1961 in Tehran. He had a professorship. He holds a Ph.D. in Software Engineering from the QL University of Software Development Methodology and an honorary Ph.D. from the University of Chelsea.
Nasim Gazerani was born in 1983 in Arak. She holds a Master's degree in Software Engineering from UM University of Malaysia.