Preface: The ancient civilization of Iran
Most of the studies conducted in various fields of Iranian culture, history, language, religion, economics, and politics introduce everyone to the various aspects of the ancient civilization of Iran. On the one hand, it has been exposed to the influence of different cultures far and near, and on the other hand, it has been able to create a unique combination by selecting and integrating them in its culture without subjugating them. The history of Iran, the civilization of this Ahuraian land, has never suffered from a fundamental discontinuity.
Ancient Iranian civilization and culture have played an important role in the formation of the identity of Iran, and the heritage of Iran is an integral part of any new civilization that has emerged in this land. Even when no external pressure has forced the Iranians to do so. Therefore, it can be boldly said that the formation and formation of the Iranian civilization were due to the dialogue between the civilizations.
This article intends to make some brief points. The key to the history of Iranian civilization and culture – especially during the transition from ancient times to the religious era – to prove once again the continuity and strength of the fertile and prolific culture of Iran.
Iranian civilizations in ancient times
When we talk about Iran, we think of land in the west and southwest of the vast continent of Asia, which extends from the northeast to the Jeyhun River, from the north to the Caspian Sea, from the northwest to the Caucasus Mountains and Asia Minor, from the west to the fertile region of Mesopotamia. (Or Mesopotamia, which is the same area of civilization between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers), is bounded on the east by the Indus Valley and the Indus River and the south by the Persian Gulf and the Iranian Sea or the Sistan Sea. This land has been the origin of rich human civilizations and cultures in different historical periods and has attracted a lot of historical studies and researches.
The period between the 3rd century BC and the 3rd century AD saw the establishment of two supra-regional states in the Iranian world, first the Arsacid and then the Kushan Empire. The patterns of imperial imagery elaborated by the Arsacids became the reference and were adopted by many of the successive dynasties, starting with the Kushan themselves. Chorasmia was exposed to such influences, and the coin series of its first kings show the interplay between local features and elements coming from both Arsacid Parthia and the Kushan Empire.
source: ancient civilization of Iran
Definition of culture
- The way of life, especially the general customs and beliefs, of a particular group of people at a particular time.
The concept of culture is deeply contested. Between 1920 and 1950 alone, at least one-hundred-and-fifty- seven definitions were presented (Kroeber and Kluckhohn 1952, 149). Having undergone a dramatic transformation over the course of at least two centuries, the notion of culture is ubiquitous in political discourse yet conceptually elusive.
Definition of civilization
- A human society with its well-developed social organizations, or the culture and way of life of a society or country at a particular period in time.
A civilization is a complex human society, usually made up of different cities, with certain characteristics of cultural and technological development. In many parts of the world, early civilizations formed when people began coming together in urban settlements. However, defining what civilization is, and what societies fall under that designation, is a hotly contested argument, even among today’s anthropologists.
Definition of language
- Language, a system of conventional spoken, manual (signed), or written symbols by means of which human beings, as members of a social group and participants in its culture, express themselves. The functions of language include communication, the expression of identity, play, imaginative expression, and emotional release.
Definition of subculture
A subculture is a group of people within a culture that differentiates itself from the parent culture to which it belongs, often maintaining some of its founding principles. Subcultures develop their own norms and values regarding cultural, political, and sexual matters. Subcultures are part of society while keeping their specific characteristics intact. Examples of subcultures include hippies, goths, bikers, and skinheads. The concept of subcultures was developed in sociology and cultural studies. Subcultures differ from countercultures.
Iranian most well-known prehistoric civilizations
Iranian most well-known prehistoric civilizations in Iran are:
1- Sialk civilization
This civilization is one of the richest civilizations found in Iran, which is built on a hill near the city of Kashan on the edge of the desert. In 1314, valuable aerial photographs were taken from different parts of Iran, based on which the famous archaeologist Roman Ghirshman in 1316 conducted valuable studies in connection with this civilization.
2- Marlik civilization
This civilization was formed in Cheraghali hill in today’s Rudbar of Gilan and in terms of ancient apparatus found in it, like the Silk civilization, it has a high richness.
3- Iranian other prehistoric civilizations
prehistoric civilizations of Silk and Marlik are the major prehistoric civilizations in Iran. There are many other civilizations in this land, the most famous of which are the Hissar civilization near Damghan, theGiyan civilization near Nahavand and the Susa civilization in Khuzestan.
Iranian Historical civilizations
These civilizations, as mentioned, belong to the period after the emergence of calligraphy, many of which continued to exist until the arrival of the Aryans in Iran.
1- The Elam Civilization
Elam Civilization had one of the most prosperous historical civilizations of Iran before the arrival of the Aryans in Iran. They are neither Aryan nor Semitic. His realm of life has been parts of Khuzestan, Persia, Ilam(Elam )and present-day Kurdistan. The political system of the Elam is such that it cannot be called an empire. However, with the arrival of the Aryans in Iran, this civilization gradually became extinct and left its heritage to the Aryans.
This civilization dates back to more than three thousand five hundred years ago. The Kassis lived in the foothills and valleys of the Zagros Mountains. Ethnic have been warriors. They ruled Babylon for six centuries and taught the people of Mesopotamia how to tame horses. Caspian Another name for the Caspian Sea is derived from the name of this people.
3. The Urartu civilization
one of the tribes that formed the brilliant civilization in present-day Armenia. This civilization has been very rich in terms of agriculture. They attribute the invention of the aqueduct to them. The Urartians formed a state between the ninth and seventh centuries BC, with Mount Ararat in the middle, and the name of the mountain is derived from the word Urartu.
4- Assur and Akkad (Akkadian Empire) civilization
These two civilizations were located in present-day Iraq. Assyria in western Iran and Akkad in southwestern Iran. The Assyrians were a warrior and bloodthirsty people and their civilization continued until after the migration of the Aryans to Iran, but eventually, as will be said in the following sections, the Medes overthrew them.
5. Other historical civilizations
Before the arrival of the Aryans in Iran, there were other civilizations in Iran whose names and coordinates are mentioned in the book itself. We will suffice to mention the names of some of them here: the Gutian civilization in Khuzestan and Poshtkuh, Mana(Mannaeans civilization) in northern Iran, Amards(Amardi) from whom the name Amol is derived and Tapuri(Tapur tribe) from whom the name of Tabarestan is derived and lived on the southern shore of the Caspian Sea and other civilized and semi-civilized tribes scattered on the plateau of Iran.
Research articles on the ancient civilization of Iran
Considerable research has been done on ancient Iran, especially in recent years, and this indicates a monkey event in the attention of researchers to the deep-rooted civilization of ancient Iran. Civilization is a novelty in its own right. The main question is what arguments and justifications did governments and rulers provide for the continuation of their rule?
The answer obtained based on the analysis of the inscriptions indicates that three elements were more important to justify political legitimacy. In this study, the manuscripts of western Iran (current) have been studied. The method of text analysis has been used to find out the content of the manuscripts, and in other cases, the documents have been used in a historical-descriptive manner are discussed.
The principles of political legitimacy in the inscriptions of ancient Iran in the west of the country (and in general the principles of legitimacy in the great empires of ancient Iran and especially the Achaemenid Empire) are categorized according to the analysis of the texts of these inscriptions as follows: Found in the (ancient) city of Babylon, seeking to legitimize his rule by remembering the lineage of his ancestors, who were from their dynasty, the largest city in Persia.
In the western inscriptions of Iran, descent is also mentioned as a basis of legitimacy, as in the first paragraph of the first column, Darius introduces himself as follows: “I am Darius, the great king, the king of kings, the king of Persia, the king of the people (lands) “, Son of Vishtasb, grandson of Ersham”. As stated in the first four paragraphs of the great and historical inscription of Biston, Darius considers descent and race, and in the words of Hakim Toos, race, as one of the important foundations and reasons for the legitimacy of himself and his family and the main reason for his rule and legitimacy.
In the last line of Xerxes’ inscription in Alvand, Hamedan, the lineage and race are mentioned as follows: “I am Xerxes Shah, king of kings, king of lands with many people, king in this great, distant and vast land, son of Darius Shah, an Achaemenid ». Dariush writes in the inscription of Naghsh-e-Rostam (Dariush’s tomb) – although this inscription is not the subject of our study, but it has very moral and human points and for this reason some of its ups and downs are mentioned:
Who created happiness for the people, who gave wisdom and ability to Darius, by the will of Ahuramazda, I love the truth and hate lies, I do not want the able to oppress the weak, I also do not want the powerful rights of the weak to be harmed.
A number of research articles on the ancient civilization of Iran
The Positioning Of Iran And Iranians In The Origins Of Western Civilization
Re-Establishment of Achaemenid History and Its Development in the 19th and 20th centuries
“An interesting point is that the spiritual dominance of Islam created a noticeable rift between the past and the future and made the Iranian nation so attached to the spiritual standards of Islam that even a number of people criticized their historical background, including Imam Mohammad Ghazali in” Alchemy Saadat »in the need to try to eradicate the ancient rites of Iran as a legacy of the Gobran! Or Harollah Zamakhshari boasted of having an Arab prejudice. However, the misbehavior of the Arab rulers caused a kind of spiritual resistance against the Arabs and the rule. A new form was formed in which Sha’ubi’s ideas and the return to the ancient heritage of Iran were considered by the defeated people, including the influence of the Iranians, which led to the revival of the Abbasid caliphate. If Islam alone was the cause of Iran’s backwardness, Even if we consider the attacks of the nomadic tribes as the main cause of Iran’s backwardness, then why after the contemporary century, when such widespread and horrific attacks were not repeated, no progress was made for Iran and instead the West made a leap into great evolution and civilization. Found? (Why did the West move forward and Iran lag behind?) Otherwise, the Iranians, in the first step, by establishing a national government (Sassanian) and trying to achieve public unity, created a single language, a single religion, a single culture and a single economy, and in the next step, by accepting rational ideas (following the connection with the Islamic world). “They entered the stage of reasoning and reasoned and underwent an amazing renaissance, so the first culture that from the outside transformed Arabic culture from a primitive form into a coherent and comprehensive culture and literature and connected it with other cultures was Iranian culture.”
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