Restaurant Serving Robot with Double Line Sensors Following Approach

Restaurant Serving Robot with Double Line Sensors Following Approach

Table of Contents


As the era of industrial 4.0 coming, robotic technology has been applied in many aspects of human life. Putting robots in service businesses such as a waiter robot serving in a restaurant is a very promising industry in the near future. In this study, the authors present the development of a restaurant serving robot using double line-sensors following approach in combination with the PID controller for stable speed outcome. The robot is designed by referring to the surveys on the size and appearance requirements at local restaurants. The serving robot is programmed to come to a specific table by mapping data. Based on the line reading algorithm from two LED array line sensors implemented on the microcontroller, the robot follows the line marked on the floor to move to the desired table position and returns to the service counter after completing the task. In this study, we build the mathematical model for the robot and simulate the response when applying the PID controller using Matlab Simulink. The set of PID parameters is found by applying PID Tune App from Simulink and then implemented to a microcontroller to regulate the pulse width voltage input to the motor.

Author Keywords

  • Serving robot,
  • Line following,
  • PWM,
  • PIC18F4550,
  • PID controller


In recent years, mobile machines have been focusing on a wide range of applications ranging from military to civil and industrial. A mobile machine is the type of machine that moving based on wheels driven. Robot’s capability is expanded by integrating smart sensors, image processing technology, and a global positioning system. The mobile robots can perform a variety of tasks, including transport and sorting robots, medical robots, navigation robots for the visually impaired. The traditional line following robot uses the ON / OFF method, which means when the robot moves to the left of the path, the robot switches off the right motor while the left motor is working normally. This is a very simple robot control method; however, the limitation of this method is that the robot does not move very smoothly. The robot always vibrates to the right and to the left of the path. This vibration affects the movement speed of the robot; the stability is not high, and there is much energy loss. The limitation if using only a one-line sensor for this robot is it doesn’t detect the angle offset between the robot and the line to be followed. Figure 1(b) is an example of the angle offset of the robot and the line to be followed. The line on the floor is still at the center of the line sensor, but the robot is moving away from the target direction. In order to avoid this problem, Andhra used a double-line following approach to solve this problem [1]; however, the double-line technique required the two parallel guiding lines on the floor which is applicable only for that system. We came up with a simpler solution by applying two-line sensors that help the robot detecting the angle offset and correcting its movement to the target direction without changing the setup of the line on the floor. The method for control the moving speed of the robot is by pulse width modulation (PWM). This method controls the rotational speed of the motor based on the average value of the pulse output signal of the controller.


We successfully built the serving machine and implemented the PID controller for driving the robot. The machine is still in the testing phase at 60s Restaurant, local food in Danang city, Vietnam. Actual robot The results of the research, design, and manufacture of the machine are as follows: • The robot can move stably and accurately. • The robot has a solid structure, stable travel speed. • Mechanical structure is easy to assemble and transport. The future research orientations are as follows: • Add audio processing functions to communicate with and able to answer questions from customers. • Add cameras to identify the regular customer for menu recommendations and count the amount of food served per day. • Improved robotic arm that can be manipulated give verbal communication with the customer such as waving or shaking hand. Although the robot has been successfully built and tested, there were some limited to this system. First of all, the wheel of the robot is small so when moving to a bumper on the floor it may cause food spilling. Secondly, the movement of the robot when turning is not very smooth due to the lack of an algorithm controller for tuning action; therefore, the robot movement algorithm needs some extra implementation.

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FULL Paper PDF file:

Restaurant Serving Robot with Double Line Sensors Following Approach



V. N. Thanh, D. P. Vinh, N. T. Nghi, L. H. Nam, and D. L. H. Toan




Restaurant Serving Robot with Double Line Sensors Following Approach

Publish in

2019 IEEE International Conference on Mechatronics and Automation (ICMA), Tianjin, China, 2019, pp. 235-239



PDF reference and original file: Click here



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Somayeh Nosrati was born in 1982 in Tehran. She holds a Master's degree in artificial intelligence from Khatam University of Tehran.