In this paper, we give a brief analysis of the work in the field of Hyperloop technology carried out in 2017-19. We show that this area is thriving. Further, we consider the structure of the Hyperloop passenger transportation system when an intermediate station appears between the start and end stations of the system. We assume that the time between departures of adjacent capsules from the start and end stations is short. We can compare it to the time of the capsule decelerates to stop at the new station. We consider the case when one part of the capsules should stop at the intermediate station, and the other part will follow to the final station without stopping. The proposed scheme is easily transformed into a bunch of structures with several intermediate stations.
- Hyperloop technology,
- development of the Hyperloop technology,
- Hyperloop passenger transportation systems,
- the structure of Hyperloop transportation systems Introduction
- Urban areas,
- Electron tubes,
- Road transportation
Most experts connect the beginning of work on the development of Hyperloop transportation systems with the appearance in August 2013 of a report by the famous American engineer, inventor, and businessman Ilon Mask, describing the design of a new ultra-fast tube transport route between the two major American cities of Los Angeles and San Francisco . Musk himself did not initially intend to engage in the project he proposed.
He initiated the organization of two firms in the United States. The purpose of these firms, unrelated to him financially, was the development of Hyperloop technology based on the development of competitive projects. That is Hyperloop Transportation Technologies Inc. (HTT) and Hyperloop Technologies Inc., which later changed its name to Virgin Hyperloop One. The financing of these firms was carried out at the expense of private financial funds. Later they were joined by SpaceX, a well-known space engineering company owned by Ilon Mask, with its Hyperloop program.
We will consider the development of the work of these three firms over the past two years in the following three areas [2,3]: – construction of test small length routes for experiments with elements of the transportation system; – development of variants of the capsule system, checking the speed parameters of the options; – selection of the place and route of the introduced transportation line, preparation for construction. HTT has signed an agreement with the French government to establish a joint Hyperloop research center in Toulouse, France. At the beginning of 2018, it was announced that the first task of the new center would be the construction of two experimental tracks, one 320 meters long was designed for testing cargo capsules and the other 1000 meters long for passenger capsules. In early 2019, HTT announced the completion of the construction of a short track of 320 meters and the transition to experiments on this track.HTT has commissioned the development of an experimental capsule to the renowned Spanish aircraft fuselage manufacturer Carbures. In the spring of 2019, the Spanish specialists demonstrated a version of the finished passenger capsule, similar to the capsule discussed in the 2013 initial Mask report.
NTT has preliminary agreements with several customers in Central Europe and Asia on the development of projects for Hyperloop passenger highways. However, two projects are considered the most real for implementation. That is a 10 km long route between Al Maktoum Airport and the venue of the Expo 2020 exhibition in Dubai (United Arab Emirates -UAE) and a similar route between the city of Tongan (China) and the local airport. To implement the latest project, HTT has established a joint venture with the municipality of a Chinese city.
Virgin Hyperloop One in April 2017 completed the construction of its experimental route with a length of 500 meters and a tube diameter of 3.3 meters. A pressure of 100 Pascals is maintained in the tube. The route is located in the Nevada desert near the city of Las Vegas (USA) and is called DevLoop. A month later, tests of the capsule developed by the company began on the route. In December 2017, the capsule accelerated to a speed of 387 km / h, which turned out to be a record for this route. Experts noted that it would be possible to achieve a significantly higher speed if the track was 2000 meters long.
In May 2018, the company announced that it had set up a joint venture with DP World’s third-largest port operator, DP World Cargospeed. The company’s goal is to use Hyperloop technology to build freight transport systems for seaports, primarily the Jebel Ali seaport in the Emirate of Dubai (UAE).
If such systems prove to be effective, DP World is ready to implement them at most of its 77 freight terminals located in more than 40 countries. The development of this task became especially real due to the fact that after a series of transformations in the leadership of Virgin Hyperloop One, the president of the company was DP World President Sultan Ahmed bin Sulayem. SpaceX announced the start of construction of its test route in early September 2016. Formally, the construction of the route was associated with an international competition for the design of a passenger capsule announced by SpaceX in the summer of 2016. The competition, called the Hyperloop pod competition, was supposed to involve student teams from leading technical universities in the world with their Hyperloop capsule models, followed by testing these capsules in a race on the company’s experimental route. The first two stages of the competition were held in the first half of 2016. As a result, 22 teams were selected for subsequent participation in the competition. The winner of the second stage was the team of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology from the city of Boston (USA). The final of the competition was to be held in August of the same year, but it was postponed to the next year due to the construction of the route.
The final was in August 2017 on a new 1,600-meter long route with a tube diameter of 1.8 meters. The first place in the final was won by the team of the Munich Technical University from Germany. Their capsule showed a speed of 327 km / h. However, this value was not a record. Musk later revealed a capsule jointly developed by SpaceX and Tesla. This capsule set a record speed of 355 km / h. In July 2018, during the new competitions, the team of the Munich Technical University won again, but with an absolute record speed of 457 km / h. A year later, in 2019, the same team improved its record by showing a speed of 463 km / h. At the end of the competition, Elon Musk announced that next year, the tests would be carried out in a new ten-kilometers vacuum tunnel with a bend. In 2017, Elon Musk organized the new Boring Company to develop new technologies for the construction of underground tunnels. This interest in tunnels is directly related to the Hyperloop trunks. Laying Hyperloop highways in urban areas is associated with enormous costs and inefficient route solutions. Using an underground tunnel allows you to freely choose the route of the highway, in particular, to ensure its straightness, and this allows you to achieve high-speed performance on all sections of the road. Unfortunately, at present, the use of existing tunneling technologies is associated with large additional material costs and long lead times for construction work. Therefore, the new company Boring Company, Musk set an ambitious task: to quickly develop such technology for laying underground tunnels that would provide a tenfold increase in productivity and tenfold decree
The Kavian Scientific Research Association (KSRA) is a non-profit research organization to provide research / educational services in December 2013. The members of the community had formed a virtual group on the Viber social network. The core of the Kavian Scientific Association was formed with these members as founders. These individuals, led by Professor Siavosh Kaviani, decided to launch a scientific / research association with an emphasis on education.
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FULL Paper PDF file:Structure of Hyperloop Systems with Intermediate Station
Structure of Hyperloop Systems with Intermediate Station
2019 Twelfth International Conference “Management of large-scale system development” (MLSD), Moscow, Russia, 2019, pp. 1-3
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