Tehran Gates – Lost History

tehran Gate

Table of Contents




Preface: Tehran

The names and letters of many cities and neighborhoods come from the heart of the history and literature of each city, and most of them represent the thoughts, allusions, and in general the culture and history of the people of each city or country. The city of Tehran is one of those cities whose history is tied to the history of Iran, especially during the Qajar period, and where you look in the capital of Iran, you will come across old letters and names, each with its own story and history. Although the letters have undergone many changes over the years, there are still neighborhoods that have retained their name from the past; But where does the name of Tehran come from? Have you ever wondered what Tehran’s name is?

Many of us have traveled through the back alleys of Tehran’s old neighborhoods on our tours, but it may be less common to think about their names, boundaries, and buildings. In this article, we will briefly review the roots of the name of Tehran and the old gates of the city, and a little more with the history of the gates of the current capital of Iran, Tehran! Let’s get acquainted. So follow us to the end of this article.

Tehran is a city in the realm of history

This is a description of the city of Tehran that is related to about 750 years ago:

It is an underground city like an ant nest whose inhabitants hide in the basements.

Source: click here

Zakaria Qazvini is not the first to mention a city called Tehran. The reference to this name Tehran or Tehran in written documents has a long history; But the name of Tehran, as a village, has found its way into historical sources in the sixth century AH. Were built in the basement. Over the course of the seventh century, the village became a prestigious town with 12 neighborhoods whose inhabitants seemed to be in constant conflict. This period,
Simultaneously with the decline of ancient Rey, due to the destruction of the Mongols and Tehran, it was preparing to play the communicative and cultural role of Rey in the history of Iran. Finally, in 961 AH, Shah Tahmasb I decided to build towers and gates around the large and strategic village of Tehran, making it a city with a privileged military position.

The issue of security has never been separate from the formation of cities. Wherever a city is formed, measures have been taken to ensure its security. The fence and the gate are also a sign of man’s efforts to make his living environment safer. The way to distinguish oneself from a stranger and to separate space. In this safe fence, the gate of the place passes. Physical and visual layout. Both the place through which man passes and the place where the viewer’s eye is drawn and held. But the role of gates is not limited to their defensive, communicative and visual dimensions. The gates also had a political, social, economic and memorial dimension.

The size of the city walls and gates depends on the size, density, traffic and the degree of danger that threatens the city. Sometimes it is necessary to dig a ditch in addition to the fence or take other measures to increase security. In designing the fence and gate, our ancestors relied on the religious beliefs and worldview of their time. For example, in ancient cities, a fence was built that had four gates on four sides as a sign of the four elements.

Apart from the number and design of gates, wherever there was a city, there were fences and gates. In this article, we want to examine the emergence of this fence and gate in the city of Tehran, but before that we must know when Tehran became a city.

Tehran’s name; Tehran, Tehiran , Taheran, or a hot place ?!

There are different narratives about the name of Tehran and different opinions have been expressed about its roots. In many sources, such as Jafar Shahri’s book Old Tehran, it is mentioned that the name Tehran consists of two words, bottom (bottom) and thigh (slope), and since this city is located at the foot of the Alborz Mountains, its name means low slope. . The late Saeed Nafisi has mentioned in his works that in the past, the people of this area took refuge in basements to take refuge from war and attacks, and the name of Tehran is composed of two words, Teh Zir and Ran Ibn Mazareh, and in other words, it can be said in In times of emergency, they died!
But another more common name belongs to the late Kasravi, he believed that the name Tehran consists of two words te (meaning warm) and ran (meaning place), and therefore the name Tehran means a warm place. As the root of the name, Shemiran means the cold and cool place (Shemi: cold).
In some sources, the name Tehran has Persian roots and its name is attributed to Mercury or Mercury. Some also believe that the person who worked to rebuild Tehran was called Tirdad, and based on this, they named this area Tiran, which has been changed to Tehran over time.
Hossein Gholi Khan Ilkhani has lived in Rey and Shemiranat for some time and in his writings, he has introduced the people of Tehran as clean-faced people who always wear clean clothes, consume good and clean weather, and are polite. In the same way, this area was called Tehran and then it became known as “Tehran”. Some also believe that in the distant past, a tribe from the Taheri family of Khorasan lived in this area and the name of Tehran goes back to the roots of Taheran.

Tehran, a village that suddenly prospered

In historical texts, before the name of Tehran is mentioned, it is the city of Rey or Raga that is famous in the region. In fact, the main city of this region was Raga. Exiting the northern gate of Rey, you will reach a village called Qasran. The village itself had two villages called Tehran and Mehran.

 

Therefore, in the last years of the Sassanid dynasty and the beginning of the Islamic era, Tehran was a village in a village around the city of Rey. Until the tenth century AH, when Shah Tahmasb Safavid ordered the construction of a fence around Tehran, we see the name of this village scattered in the sources. The prosperity of the village, however, occurs when the Tahmasebi fence is built.

Fences and gates of Tehran before Qajar

In 944 AH, Shah Tahmasb Safavid visited Tehran for the first time. 17 years later, when the Shah’s passage fell to this village again, he ordered a fence to be built around it. This fence had 4 gates and 114 towers to indicate the number of surahs of the Quran, under each of which surah of the Quran was buried. With the siege, Tehran was secured and trade flourished. Following this, and with the help of other Safavid rulers, other constructions were carried out, such as the construction of a school, a bath, and a bazaar. Tehran slowly gained power and became famous.

With some ups and downs in the post-Safavid years, Tehran opens its arms to Karim Khan Zand. Karim Khan settled in this city for a while to confront the restless Qajar tribe that was close to Tehran. The city underwent many changes during his stay. One of the most important changes was the addition of the royal court (modern marble porch in Golestan Palace ), which later became the center of the Qajar dynasty.

Dushan Tappeh Gate

Probably Dushan Tappeh Gate (by Walter Mittelholzer around 1304)

Customs Gate (by Walter Mittelholzer around 1304)

Customs Gate

Customs Gate (Gomrok gate- shooting by Walter Mittelholzer around 1304)

The gates of Tehran

 

The gates of Tehran were said to tall and tall buildings and urban spaces around them, which in the past were built in parts of the fence and tower of Tehran . The construction of this building was done for the first time since the Safavid era with the construction of five gates during the reign of Shah Tahmasb. One gate was built during the Afghan era and another during the reign of Mohammad Shah Qajar. During the reign of Nasser al-Din Shah Qajar, the Safavid gates were destroyed to expand the city, and then the city had twelve gates.

The gates of Nasser al-Din Shah were destroyed during the Pahlavi era, and today only two gates from previous eras remain, one is the Baghmali Gate built under Reza Khan’s prime minister, and the other is a small part of the Mohammadiyeh Gate at the entrance to Abbasabad Bazaar. Also, the head of Ghorkhaneh in Tehran has been left from that period.

Twelve gates of view Tile and Stencils and columns painted blue print special thing, such as Rustam , Dave White and Rostam and Esfandiar all beautiful, impressive and was pleasant. The gates of Tehran were Khorasan Gate, Shah Abdolazim Gate, Cave Gate, Customs Gate, Qazvin Gate, Behjatabad Gate, Government Gate, Shemiran Gate, Dushantepe Gate, Dolab Gate, Baghshah Gate and Cheragh Bargh Gate. [1]  These gates were closed at night and entry and exit were prohibited, except by saying (the name of the night) which the court minister gave to the chief of guards every day. [1]

The last gate, which was built in the Dar al-Khalafah of Tehran and was called the gate of Maidan Mashkh, was created during the reign of Reza Shah in the middle of the oil company and the post office. In the big iron building, this building, which had been built for years, was built in Qorkhaneh.

The twelve gates of Tehran were destroyed in 1309 AD during the mayoralty of Karim Agha Bouzarjomehri under the pretext that the city should be renovated. [1]

source: From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedi

All Tehran gates

After the death of Shah Ismail Safavid, his son Shah Tahmasb (0902-955 (930-984 AH / 1524-1576 AD) came to power. In December 915 AH (Jamadi al-Akhr 943 AH / December 1536 AD), he visited Tehran to visit the Imamzadeh of Hamza, buried next to King Abdolazim Rey and of the Shah’s ancestral dynasty, and found this city worthy of attention. At this time, Rey had no trace of prosperity and fame of his background, but in contrast, Tehran of this era had achieved remarkable fame and prestige.

During this trip, Tahmaseb ordered Mir (Shah) Ghavamuddin Nourbakhsh to be arrested in Tehran. Arrest of Mir (Shah) Ghavamuddin Nourbakhsh, one of Sadat’s elders, who had become famous and influential in Rey and Tehran, on charges of murdering Omidi Tehrani 1, A poet and physician from Tehran and the usurpation of his property, especially the garden of Sangalaj by Mir (Shah) Ghavam-ud-Din, which took place in Tehran eighteen years earlier and during the reign of the former king, Ismail, in 898 AH (925 AH / 1519 AD).

After this action, Tahmaseb returned to his capital Qazvin. After this trip of Shah Tahmaseb to Tehran, he came to this city once or twice, but his most important trip to Tehran is related to the year 932 AH (961 AH / 1554 AD), which finally to build the first and oldest fence and fortress of Tehran. Led by this Sufi king. 2

 

All the gates of Tehran (Part 1)

There is a famous saying that Shah Tahmaseb wanted to bring the capital, which was in Qazvin, to Tehran, but he regretted one summer when he stayed in Tehran and saw its annoying heat. 3 In any case, Tehran and earlier Rey were right at the junction of the east-west and north-south highways of Iran, and now that the ancient Rey was gone, what better place than Tehran could it take.

This year, by order of the Shah, they built a bazaar and a mosque in Tehran and built a fort around the city. The length of this fort is estimated at about six thousand steps. Of course, it would not be correct for some to write six thousand steps equal to one mile; Because then each step must be at least one hundred centimeters, while often less than that and about eighty to ninety centimeters.

This fence had 114 towers with the number of chapters of the Holy Quran, under each tower, a surah of the Holy Quran was buried for peace and blessings. The fence, which was an irregular rectangle, had four gates on its four main sides. They surrounded the fence from the outside by digging a deep and wide ditch. They used deep and wide moat soil to build towers and fortifications of the city. 4

At a distance of every 53 steps, a circular tower was built inside the fence wall. The north wall of the fence had 31 towers, the south wall of the fence had 40 towers, the east wall of the fence had 21 towers and the west wall of the fence had 22 towers.
If the number of these towers and the distance of 53 steps each are considered and the necessary computational details are taken into account, we can calculate the limits and area of ​​the first fort of Tehran as follows: the north wall of the fort is about 1643 steps, the south wall of the fort is about 2120 steps , The eastern wall of the fort is about 1092 steps and the western wall of the fort is about 1145 steps.5

On each side of the four walls of Tehran, they placed a gate to pass outside the city. These four gates were: Shemiran Gate in the North Fence Wall (east side of North Fence), Shah Abdolazim Gate, or Isfahan Gate in South Fence Wall (east side of South Fence), Dolab Gate in East Fence Wall (south side of East Fence) And Qazvin Gate on the wall of the western fence (south side of the western fence).

If we want to locate these gates at that time with the current situation, we can say that Shemiran Gate was located at the beginning of Pamanar (Amirkabir) Street, Shah Abdolazim Gate or Isfahan Gate corresponded to Molavi Street and Hazrati Bazaar. Dolab Gate corresponded to the entrance of Nayeb Al-Saltanah Bazaar on Rey Street, and Qazvin Gate was comparable to the beginning of Ghavam Al-Dawlah and Tarkhani Bazaar in the east of Shapur Square (Islamic Unity Square).

Thus, Tehran is based on Shah Tahmasebi tower and fortifications and according to the streets of the next centuries, from the north to Amirkabir street, Sepah square and Sepah street, from the south to Molavi street, from the east to Rey street and from the west to Shapour street (Islamic unity). ) Was limited. This area later became known as the Shah Tahmasebi fence area, which had an area of ​​about 440 hectares.

The four important shrines of Tehran at that time, Imamzadeh Zaid, Imamzadeh Yahya, Imamzadeh Ismail and Imamzadeh Seyed Nasr (Nasser) al-Din, were inside this fence. Tehran, which had long since started moving from a town and a village to urbanization, with this action Shah Tahmaseb practically went through the final stages of urbanization.

The main structure of the city during this period was linear. Thus, creating tension between the two poles of the city, especially the gate of Shah Abdolazim and Qazvin, had created a linear form. On the other hand, the main elements of this structure, namely the citadel and the Grand Mosque, were located in a nuclear form near the axis of the main line.

The bazaar, the royal citadel and the Grand Mosque, which formed the main skeleton of the city, were surrounded by the main neighborhoods of the city, namely Odlajan, Sangalaj, Chal Maidan and Bazaar, and together formed the structure of the city.

The core was around Polak’s head; Where the neighborhoods of Odlajan and Chal connected the square and the bazaar. Of course, to this area, a few other small points should be added, such as the area of ​​Sangalaj water dispenser and Seyyed Nasr (Nasser) al-Din and the headquarters of Khatam or Hakim, which is the royal citadel, and the rest of Tehran was free of buildings and structures.

In these lands, the people of Tehran, more than thirty years old, obtained all their food needs, including fruits, grains, legumes, summer crops, and finally the fodder of their animals by farming.

During the long years that the people of Tehran exported their garden products and imported the goods they needed, they had to have caravanserais, albeit small, in the city, which to some extent acted as a terminal for them at that time, but since There is no evidence of their existence except Ahmad Gour Caravanserai. Those caravanserais, provided they existed, were not buildings that would remain stable until later periods.

Therefore, there are no traces of them left. In Tazkereh books, one of the poets of the Safavid period named Hafezi of Tehran is mentioned. It is written that the first Tehrani architect mentioned in the texts of the Safavid period and a contemporary of Shah Tahmasb I and lived in Tehran, was the father of this Tehrani Hafiz. We do not know his name, but no doubt he could have participated in the construction of the fortress of Tehran. The four gates of the city at this time, as mentioned earlier, were:

Shemiran gate

Gate This gate was the only northern gate of the city. Shemiran Gate was built on the east side of the northern fence wall. The location of this gate can be considered as the beginning of the north of Pamanar Street (Amirkabir). This gate was the connection route between Tehran and the northern parts of the city. Shemiran Gate was located in the Odlajan neighborhood on the northeast side of the Russian Embassy building.

All the gates of Tehran (Part 1)

This neighborhood consisted of houses, gardens and public buildings located in the alleys branching from the passage that led to the Shemiran Gate. This passage was the same as Pamanar Street and this neighborhood was located in the distance from the minaret to the gate to the axis of Pamanar Street.

King Abdul Azim gate

Gate This gate was the only southern gate of the city. The gate of Shah Abdolazim or the gate of Isfahan was built on the eastern side of the wall of the southern fence. The location of this gate can be considered to be in accordance with Molavi Street and the beginning of Hazrati Bazaar. This gate was located in the connection of Tehran with the southern areas and the shrine of Hazrat Abdolazim and the cities of Qom and Isfahan. Shah Abdolazim Gate was located between Bazaar neighborhood and Chal Maidan neighborhood.

All the gates of Tehran (Part 1)

Dolab Gate

This gate was the only eastern gate of the city. The Dolab Gate was built on the south side of the east wall. The location of this gate can be considered as the beginning of the viceroy market on Rey Street. This gate was the connection route between Tehran and the eastern regions. Dolab Gate was located in Chal Maidan neighborhood. The name Dolab is derived from the water aquifer and its important aqueduct shows the importance of this eastern region of Tehran.

All the gates of Tehran (Part 1)

Qazvin Gate

This gate was the only western gate of the city. Qazvin Gate was built on the south side of the western fence wall. The location of this gate can be considered as the beginning of Ghavam Al-Dawlah and Tarkhani Bazaar in the east of Shapur Square (Islamic Unity Square). This gate was the connection route between Tehran and the western regions, including Qazvin.

These four gates are the first and oldest gates of Tehran in the Safavid era. The fifth gate, called Asad al-Dawla Gate, was built by the Afghans during their occupation of Iran.

All the gates of Tehran (Part 1)

Asad al-Dawla Gate

Around 1104 AH (1137 AH / 1725 AD), Tahmasb II, Crown Prince Shah Sultan Hussein, retreated from Tehran to Mazandaran due to the invasion of the invading Afghan tribes. Ashraf Afghan, who had come to Tehran via Qom, besieged the city. On the other hand, Fath Ali Khan Qajar, the head of the Qajar tribe, who had brought his troops to the village of Ebrahimabad in the south of Tehran via Damghan and Semnan, was forced to retreat to Larijan after a one-day battle with Ashraf Afghan. Ashraf Afghan troops stormed the city to conquer Tehran. The people of Tehran showed great resistance, and although many Afghans were killed in the war, the Afghans finally broke the resistance of the people of Tehran, opened the gates of the city and took control of the city of Tehran.

Parts of the city and a number of its gardens and vineyards were destroyed by the invaders. The occupation of Tehran by the Afghans is a confirmation of the important and vital role of Tehran at that time in running the country, after Isfahan, the center of the Safavid government. Afghan leaders settled in Tehran at Shah Suleiman’s palace, the royal court.

From this time until about five years later, that is, until 1108 AH (1142 AH / 1730 AD), Tehran remained under Afghan occupation. During this time, the Afghans built a citadel fence and other buildings in the city.

Ashraf Afghan made Tehran it is base of military operations in the northern regions of Iran and a stronghold to confront its opponents in Mazandaran, Zanjan, and Azerbaijan. They also added sections to the buildings of the Royal Citadel of Tehran and built a wall around the citadel. But perhaps their most important action in this regard was the creation of a new gate in the north of the city and north of the royal citadel, at the entrance of today’s Bab Homayoun Street, which became known as Asad al-Dawla Gate.

After the construction of four gates in the fort of Tehran by Shah Tahmasb Safavid in 932 AH (961 AH / 1554 AD), ie nearly 180 years after that time, Assadollah Doleh Gate was the fifth gate of Tehran. Bab Homayoun was a simple passage built during the Afghan domination to connect the grounds of the royal citadel or Chaharbagh to the northern fortification of the citadel and from there to the Asad al-Dawla gate on the northern side of the fortifications and moat.

It was the custom of the Afghans to build a citadel wherever they could, one side of which must be on the desert side so that if it was attacked and the citadel fell, they could escape to the desert from that side. The citadel wall, which was erected until the middle of the Qajar dynasty, had a gate to the bazaar from the south and opened from the north to the current location of Topkhaneh Square with a gate and a bridge to the northern desert of the city. The northern gate was called Asad al-Dawla gate until the time of Mohammad Shah Qajar and was renamed the government gate during the reign of Naser al-Din Shah.

Mohammadiyah Gate

In 1226 AH (1263 AH / 1847 AD), by the order of Mohammad Shah Qajar, Abbas Abad Bazaar was built in the south of Sabzeh Maidan, which led to the newly built Mohammadiyeh neighborhood in the south of the city. This bazaar was removed from the main bazaar, and on the other hand, no one lived in the Mohammadiyah neighborhood except the poor people. Therefore, in order for the newly built bazaar to come out of the stalemate and stagnation and prosper, the following year, another gate called Mohammadiyeh, named after Mohammad Shah, was opened on the southern fort of the city, which became known among the people as the New Gate.

This gate should be considered the sixth gate of Tehran. Some of the tiles at the top of this gate, which are kept in the Museum of Ancient Iran, show the role of Rostam and the demon, which was very skillfully and beautifully designed by Master Mohammad Gholi, a tile maker from Shiraz. Mohammadiyeh Gate (former New Gate) is the only remnant of Tehran’s historical gates, parts of which still remain. 6As time went on, the main parts of this gate disappeared and now only three turquoise minarets are left. 7

mohamadieh gate
mohamadieh gate

Expansion and relocation of gates

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During the reign of Nasser al-Din Shah, the city of Tehran expanded from all sides. Shah Qajar, after consulting with informants, decided to enlarge the city wall and increase its gates at the beginning of the twentieth year of his reign. Of course, before this action, several small and large cities and development events had taken place in Tehran at that time, among which we can mention the following examples:

Construction of Abbas Abad Bazaar in the south of Sabzeh Maidan (ca. 1225 AH / 1262 AH / 1846 AD), construction of Ferdows Garden by Hassan Ali Khan, ruler of Tehran, and initial design of construction of Artillery Square by Amirkabir (1227 AH / 1265 AH / 1849 AD), construction of Dar al-Fonun school and beginning Construction of the first hospital in Tehran (1229 AH / 1266 AH / 1850 AD), inauguration of the first hospital in Tehran (December 1331 AH / Rabi al-Awal 1268 AH / January 1852 AD), construction of a new artillery warehouse and construction of a hat market and shoemaker market in the same year, repair and construction Sabzeh Maidan (1232 AH / 1269 AH / 1853 AD), construction of Timcheh Hajib Al-Dawlah (1223 AH / 1270 AH / 1854 AD), division of Naser Khosrokhan Garden and Qorkhaneh Garden and Amanullah Khan Garden and its sale to the people by Naser al-Din Shah to accommodate the increased population following the expansion of the city Outside the fence (1235 AH / 1272 AH / 1856 AD), the establishment of a mint in Chalharz (1237 AH / 1275 AH / 1858 AD), the completion of the Shah’s garden and its jogging field by Nasser al-Din Shah, the fragmentation of Tehran’s gardens to accommodate the growing populationFollowing the expansion of the city outside the fence and the beginning of the opening of the doors of the royal gardens for public use (1238 AH / 1276 AH / 1859 AD), the reconstruction of the exercise square, the completion of the Bastian front, the division of the court gardens for sale and the construction of the mansion abroad The city of Tehran and the establishment of the British embassy on Ala Al-Dawlah Street (Ferdowsi), all four cases in 1240 AH (1278 AH / 1861 AD), construction of the Kazakhkhaneh building in the north of Mashkh Square (1242 AH / 1280 AH / 1863 AD), construction of Shams Al-Amara Palace, conversion of Laleh Garden A call to the zoo and the initial design of the Nasiriyah Gate in 1244 AH (1282 AH / 1865 AD), the filling of the eastern moat of the citadel and the formation of Nasiriyah Street and the installation of cast iron oil lamps on this street (1245 AH / 1283 AH / 1866 AD) and the construction of the Tehran Patient House in 1246 AH. 1284 AH / 1867 AD).

Finally, on 17 Azar 1246 (11 Sha’ban 1284/8 December 1867), a silver pickaxe made by the second moat of Tehran was knocked to the ground by Nasser al-Din Shah, and from this time on, Tehran became known as the Nasiri Caliphate. Naser al-Din Shah Qajar inquired from the jurist and mujtahid of that time, Haji Mullah Ali Kani, for the development of Tehran, and consulted with him in this regard, but Haji Mullah Ali Kani believed that the expansion of the capital caused the destruction and disintegration of cities and villages. It becomes another country and due to more security and social welfare in Tehran, people from all over Iran flock to the capital and as a result, the protection of Tehran in terms of health, food, housing, and especially security is in trouble. And will be very difficult.

However, Shah Tahmasebi’s tower and fort were destroyed and the ditches around the fort were filled with soil. Then they expanded the city of Tehran to imitate the map of the city of Paris, geometrically and in the shape of an unequal octagon. Twelve gates were built around it, and a moat was dug around the fort. Thus, the environment of the new city reached 22 km.

To implement the new shape of Tehran, first, a map on paper is prepared. Map maker Monsieur Boehler 8 , French, was one of the professors of the Academy of Arts. Boehler was a graduate of the Paris Polytechnic. He died after Zati, 9He was an engineer and teacher of arithmetic and geometry, and instead taught at the Dar al-Fonun. , Translated and published by Abdul Rasul Khan and Jafar Qoli Khan.

Using his experience, Bohler, with all due diligence and honesty, made his service to Iran his profession, and it was thanks to his services that in the Nasserite era, he was promoted to the rank of brigadier general in the Iranian army.

Gfh layout Tehran fence and moat of a castle 17th-century French instrument called Vban 10 was adopted. The focal point of this plan was the prediction of a square in the heart of the new area, which would become the new center of the city, and this role was fulfilled at least ninety years later, even after Tehran had expanded beyond the Nasserite period.

The new gates were built in the style of Safavid architecture and decorated with shiny and various tiles. The new project was carried out on the mission of Mirza Yousef Mostofi Al-Mamalik, Prime Minister, and Mirza Issa, Minister of Tehran, with the help of a group of engineers and architects.

The distance to the new city was about three and a half miles. They have written that the area between the moat line of the new city and the line of the old city, from the Shemiran gate, at the entrance of Pamanar, was about one thousand and eight hundred cubits and from other directions about one thousand cubits.

Assuming that the desired length was 48 cm, the desired lengths can be considered about 900 meters and 500 meters, respectively. These gates were built so carefully and skillfully at that time that Tehran was the first tourist destination in Europe.

Following the formal development of the city limits, the pressure of the population to live in the area of old Tehran was reduced and construction began on new urban lands. During forty years of political peace and stability, many large and beautiful gardens and houses were built, especially in the north and west of the city. As a result of these changes, the Lalehzar Garden became part of the city and became less important, because it had been a place for guests and foreign ambassadors until then. Instead, they built the Ishratabad Garden outside the city to receive foreign guests and ambassadors, which later became the center of the military division. The twelve gates of Tehran during the Nasserite period were: three northern gates of the city, from east to west, respectively, Shemiran, Dolat, Yousefabad.

Shemiran Gate

All the gates of Tehran (part two)

The old Shemiran Gate (Tahmasebi) was the first in Pamanar and the New Shemiran Gate was located south of the wooden bridge in present-day Ibn Sina Square. This gate was considered to be in the north wall of the city and the easternmost northern gate.

Government Gate

All the gates of Tehran (part two)

Earlier, it was reported that the Afghans had built a new gate north of the city and north of the royal citadel, at the entrance to present-day Bab Homayoun Street, called Asad al-Dawla Gate. This northern gate was called by the same name until the time of Mohammad Shah Qajar, but during the reign of Naser al-Din Shah and with the expansion of the city’s beliefs, it was renamed the government gate and its location was moved to the intersection of Enghelab and Saadi streets.

Yousefabad Gate

All the gates of Tehran (part two)

Yousefabad Gate was the westernmost gate of Tehran in the northern fort. The location of this gate was around the intersection of Enghelab Street and College Crossroads.

Three gates in the southern part of the city, from east to west, respectively, Shah Abdolazim, cave, Khani Abad + smoky car gate (railway).

Gate of King Abdul Azim

All the gates of Tehran (part two)

The gate of Shah Abdolazim Ghadim (Tahmasebi) was located on Molavi Street and the beginning of Hazrati Bazaar and the gate of Shah Abdolazim Jadid (Naseri) was located in Shousha Square and at the beginning of Shahr-e Rey road. This gate was in the southern fortified wall of the city and was considered the easternmost southern gate.

Cave gate

All the gates of Tehran (part two)

The gate of the cave was between Khani Abad and Shousha Square. This gate was located in the southern fortification wall of the city and between the gate of Shah Abdolazim Jadid and the gate of Khani Abad.

Smoky car gate (railway)

All the gates of Tehran (part two)

Later, a new gate was added for the smoky car, which was the same city train from Tehran to the city of Rey, which, of course, was very simple and could not reach the other famous gates of the city. The story was that the privilege of launching the Tehran-Shahreri railway was given to Fabius Boatal 11 of Belgium.

This happened in Azar 1265 (Rabi al-Awal 1304 / December 1886). In 1267 AH (1306 AH / 1888 AD), the building of the railway was completed and inaugurated by Nasser al-Din Shah. The length of this railway was eight kilometers and seven hundred meters and it had a 6.5 km long side line that went to the stone mine. The beginning of this route was made in the southeast of Molavi crossroads, near Amin Al-Sultan shopping center and the northern and eastern part of the current Kowsar Park. (It should be noted that this gate is not considered as one of the twelve gates) Three gates in the eastern part of the city, from north to south, respectively: Dushan Tappeh, Dolab, Khorasan)

Dushan Tappeh Gate

All the gates of Tehran (part two)

Dushan Tappeh Gate was located at the end of Mojahedin-e-Islam Street overlooking Shahdad (Jaleh) Square. This gate was considered to be in the eastern fortification wall of the city and the northernmost eastern gate

Dolab Gate

All the gates of Tehran (part two)

The old Dolab Gate (Tahmasebi) was located at the beginning of Nayeb Al-Saltanah Bazaar on Rey Street and the new Dolab Gate (Nasseri) was located at Shokoofeh intersection. This gate was located in the eastern fortification wall of the city, south of Dushan Tappeh gate and north of Khorasan gate.

Khorasan Gate

All the gates of Tehran (part two)

Khorasan Gate was located around Khorasan Square. This gate was considered to be in the eastern fortification wall of the city and the southernmost eastern gate.

Three gates in the western part of the city, from north to south, respectively: Bagh Shah, Qazvin, Customs.

King Garden Gate

All the gates of Tehran (part two)

The gate of Bagh-e Shah was located around Hour Square. This gate was located in the western fortification wall of the city and was considered the northernmost western gate.

Qazvin Gate

All the gates of Tehran (part two)

The old Qazvin Gate (Tahmasebi) was located at the beginning of Ghavam Al-Dawlah and Tarkhani Bazaar in the east of Shapur Square (Islamic Unity Square) and the new Qazvin Gate (Naseri) was at the entrance of Qazvin Street and Square. This gate was located in the western wall of the city, south of Bagh-e-Shah gate and north of the customs gate.

Customs gate

All the gates of Tehran (part two)

The customs gate was located around the customs square (Razi). This gate was in the western fortification wall of the city and was considered the southernmost western gate.

The composition of Tehran's gate architecture and how the sheriff or chief constables and patrols location and their functionality

The composition of Tehran's gate architecture

The gates of Tehran have a general plan that is similar to each other. But each of them has its own characteristics that distinguish them from each other. A notable example of these gates is Shemiran Gate. This gate is a relatively large building that has a crescent-shaped arch but the head in the arch is rectangular and flat. On either side of the gate were rooms on either the upper and lower floors, and what gave it a special grandeur were the minarets built on either side of the gate roof. The facades of all these buildings were covered with beautiful tiles and bricks in yellow, orange, black and blue colors, and in its design, geometric principles were fully observed. The twelve gates of Tehran were:

North: Shemiran Gate (around the current Shemiran Turnpike, ie the intersection of Enghelab and Shariati streets), Dolat Gate (where Saadi and Enghelab streets intersect) and Yousefabad Gate (College intersection)

West: Khani Abad Gate (Khani Abad Square at the intersection of Khani Abad Street with Molavi and Shousha Street), Cave Gate (distance between Khani Abad and Shousha Square), Shah Abdolazim Gate (Shousha Square at the beginning of Rey city road)

East: Khorasan Gate (Khorasan Square), Dolab Gate (Shokofeh Three Ways) and Dushan Tappeh Gate (end of Mojahedin Street overlooking Shohada Square)

Of course, later a new gate was added for the smoky car, which was the same city train from Tehran to the city of Rey, which did not have much upside and did not reach the foot of other famous gates.

How the sheriff or chief constables had been worked and patrols

According to the customs and traditions that have apparently become a tradition in this country, these beautiful and magnificent buildings have not had a specific cost for drawing, maintaining and renovating, and every mayor and every city official has invaded and occupied each of these buildings. As can be seen from the available photographs, during the seventy years since the establishment of these gates, the shape and image of some of them have undergone general changes, which eventually led to the destruction of these works. As the mayor of Reza Shah, Karim Agha Bouzarjomehri, finally destroyed the tower and fortifications of the city in 1311 AH and then all the gates of Tehran, so that from the four sides of the fortifications of Tehran, four streets, Enghelab, Shahbaz, Shousha and Thirty meters formed. Unfortunately, at this time there are no traces of those eye-catching gates except old photographs.

One of the interesting points and margins of the gates was the issue of gatekeepers and gatekeepers. Each gate had two types of agents, toll collectors and smugglers.

Proceeds from the gates were rented to a person who had been auctioned off to him each year. This means that on behalf of the government, which gives me some money, you can do whatever you want with the people. They were appointed, and he rented each gate separately and received a rent. The behavior of the gatekeepers with the people does not need to be explained, and as soon as they rent a gate, they have to pay the rent and make a profit themselves. What extortion and bagging should they do in their travels! Sometimes they were separated from the tolls and received tolls from the loaded animal.

 

The work of the inspectors was no better than theirs. The rule of their work in cargo inspection was to first search for its contents with a strong stick that they had in their hands! Woe to the one who had a burden to break.

And secondly, what they did to inspect the goods, such as cloth and the like, was to insert a long iron bar into it so that there was no smuggled material such as opium in the middle. Of course, the government did not get anything from the discoveries of smuggling, and everything was fairly distributed between these agents and higher officials! Another task of these agents was to open and close the gates at night, and by doing so, many of the surviving herdsmen entered the city for fear of the trench thieves, paying large sums of money to the gatekeepers..


From Baladieh to Tehran Municipality

“Baladieh” was the old name of the municipality and in this sense: “An institution in every city that is correct in its work of cleaning and good water, bread, lights, fuel, and food.” Before the formation of the municipality, the people of each city performed municipal services according to personal and religious customs and beliefs, without government intervention, and everyone cleaned the front of their house and shop. The first order of urban affairs was implemented during the reign of Nasser al-Din Shah Qajar, and an office called the “Accounting Office” was established, whose members were called accountants. This office had two branches, “Ehtesab” and “Tanzif”, in each of which a number of deputies, Farash and Spour served. The task of the accounting department was to maintain and ensure the cleanliness of the city, which performs both the duties of order and urban affairs.

After the establishment of constitutionalism, the first legal municipality of Tehran was approved and announced by the National Assembly during the reign of Alireza Khan Azdolmalek Qajar, and the municipality of Tehran was established in a mansion located in Sabzeh Maidan. In fact, the first official municipality was established during the reign of Muzaffar al-Din Shah Qajar, and its goal was to “protect the interests of cities and meet the needs of urban people.”

According to the Law of the Municipality (consisting of 108 articles passed in 1286 AD), the chairman of the municipality was the chairman of the municipality, who was elected by a majority vote from among the members of the association, but then the mayor under the Ministry of Interior Ibrahim Khan Yamin al-Saltanah was the first person to take over the presidency of Tehran Municipality in 1292 A.D., who held this position until 1299 AH.

After the coup d’etat of 1299, with the coming to power of Seyyed Zia-ud-Din Tabatabai, the prime minister, the municipal administration was removed from the status of a city association and became a municipality affiliated with the government. In 1300 AD, Gaspar Ipkian became the head of Tehran Municipality by Seyyed Zia. He took important measures in Tehran. Including lighting of Amiriyeh, Lalehzar and Istanbul streets. At this time, the Baladieh building was built in the northern part of Artillery Square, which lasted until the early 1940s.

In 1302 AH, Karim Agha Bouzarjomehri became the mayor of Tehran and remained in this position for a long time (1302-1312). With great effort, he transformed Tehran from an old city to a new one. But unfortunately, the gates of Tehran were destroyed during his time.

It should be noted that the solar year 1309 is considered a turning point in the history of the municipality. Because the Municipal Law of 1325 is repealed and replaced by another law. The Municipal Association and Municipal Organizations are faced with new tasks and definitions, and the Municipality was appointed by the Ministry of Interior (Ministry of Interior). Takes care of things.

:Footnotes

1- Maulana Saad al-Din Massoud Arjasb Omidi Tehrani, born in 835. (860 AH / 1365 AD), killed in 898 AH (925 AH / 1519 AD).

2- Shah Tahmah’s attention to Tehran and the construction of a fort around it could have many different reasons. Perhaps some of them can be summarized as follows: Tehran’s proximity to Qazvin, the capital of the Safavid era, and that a strong and enclosed Tehran could provide and maintain its food and that of the capital’s inhabitants, as well as be a vanguard against enemy invasion. To the capital, Qazvin, on the other hand, Tehran was a passage between Mazandaran, Azerbaijan and Khorasan. Therefore, strengthening this passage was necessary to be ready to face the invasion of the Ottomans and Uzbeks as a strong fortress.

One of Shah Tahmaseb’s main concerns was the issue of Uzbeks, who constantly disturbed Khorasan and sometimes threatened the whole of Iran. The rebellions of the Marashi rulers of Mazandaran were another cause for concern for Shah Tahmaseb.

Due to its vastness and availability of water, fodder, trees, and fields, the Varamin plain and plain of Tehran were the target of invaders who sought to provide food and fodder and could use Tehran as a base to attack Qazvin.

Therefore, the existence of an enclosed city, with a strong tower and fortification in this area, was necessary for Shah Tahmaseb. In this case, Tehran became a fortress that was both a shield for the defense of Qazvin, the capital of the Safavids, and a storehouse of supplies for the campaign to Mazandaran and Khorasan.

In any case, and since Shah Khattab often used Tehran as a camp in his campaigns against the Uzbek invasions, it can be seen that he undoubtedly realized the high military importance of this city. Tehran’s proximity to the Afshar tribe in Savojbolagh, Tehran, and the residence of some Arab Varamin tribes who were Shah Tahmaseb’s supporters, proximity to Astarabad and Mazandaran, which was in fact the headquarters of the Safavid forces, favorable natural conditions and suitable climate and vegetation in Tehran. With the ancient city of Rey and the shrine of Shah Abdolazim and Imamzadeh Hamzeh, which the Sufis traced their lineage to this Sayyid Hamzeh according to genealogy, and Shah Tahmaseb often visited the tomb, there are many gardens in Tehran and the city has hunting grounds Properly, it was another reason and factors that made the importance of Tehran more obvious to Shah Tahmaseb.

3- In 969 AH (998 AH / 1590 AD) Shah Abbas I with the army of Khorasan to confront Abdul Momen Khan Uzbek who invaded the areas of Khorasan and looted and killed people there. When Shah Abbas arrived in Tehran from Qazvin, he encamped in this city, but in Tehran he became ill for fifty days and fifty days, and as a result, most of his troops were dispersed.

According to the author of Alam Arai Abbasi, the Shah’s illness in Tehran was due to his overeating of the good fruits of this city. The Uzbeks were able to capture and loot many cities in Khorasan at a time when Shah Abbas was receiving medical treatment in Tehran.

It is written that because the Shah was disappointed with his complete treatment, he went to Shah Abdul Azim and recovered there. Therefore, Shah Abbas swore not to set foot in Tehran anymore and cursed anyone who entered Tehran and spent the night there (Etemad-ol-Saltaneh, 1988, c: 882, 896-898, 906-907 and 946). .

4- Another saying says that because when building towers and fortifications, the soil of the surrounding ditches was not enough, they took soil from five areas inside the city and used it. Therefore, five large holes and ditches were named Chaleh Maidan, Chaleh Hesar, Beeh Zanborak Khaneh, Elephant House, and finally Mohammadiyeh Gate. There is still disagreement over whether to accept either of these two views.

5- Really, why has the burden of Tehran been so great? The most important reason for this is the protection of the city’s water resources. The main sources of water in Tehran at that time were two springs called Sarcheshmeh Bala and Sarcheshmeh Pa’in in the northeast of the city, the Mehran aqueduct in the center of Hesar, where the royal citadel of Tehran was later built, and the aqueduct aqueduct in the northwest of the neighborhood. سنگلج.

These vital sources of water had to be placed within the city walls to protect them from destruction and damage during war and possible enemy attack. Closing these resources by changing their direction would lead to dehydration and cause the city to fall. In addition, all the western and eastern parts of Tehran, connected to the fort, were covered with orchards, and economic and military necessities required that the city fort include them to protect them from enemy damage.

The defense function was one of the first measures to give Tehran prosperity and credibility by building fortifications and building a bazaar. By combining defensive function and religious beliefs and by sanctifying the tower and belief by burying a chapter of the Quran under each tower and by expanding other urban functions, Tehran became a city. Amin Ahmad Razi Tehrani, who was himself a resident of this region and between the years 967-972 (992-1002 AH / 1588-154 AD), finished writing the book “Seven Climates” and his father Khajeh Mirza Ahmad for some time held the position of Rey police During the reign of Shah Tahmaseb, it was called a city due to the fortifications and bazaar of Tehran.

6- The entrance of the National Garden was not one of the main gates of the city, that is, the gates that opened from the city to the outside, but it was a gate inside the city. To name these inner gates of the city, the word gate was not used more, but it was a gate inside the city. To name these inner gates of the city, the word gate was mostly used, such as diamond gate and Ala Al-Dawlah gate. In this article, there is no opportunity to address these issues.

7- The only remaining part of the remains of the city of Tehran is in the same place.

Sources and References

– Abrishami, Farshad, Tehran Roozgar Ghadim, Tehran, House of History and Silk Image, 2010, pp
. 28-48 .
Etemad-ol-Saltaneh, Mohammad Hassan Khan, Tarikh Montazem Naseri, edited by Mohammad Ismail Rezvani, Tehran, Book World, 1988, Volume II, pp. 791, 800, 864, 1013-1016, 1024-1029, 1059-1062, 1086 and 1094-1095.

– _______, Al-Mathir wa Al-Athar, by Iraj Afshar, Tehran, Asatir, 1984, Volume 1, pp. 104-105 and 130.

– Hosseini Bolaghi, Hojjat, Selected History of Tehran, Tehran, Maziar, 2007, pp. 107, 166, 221, 239, 288-292, 305 and 326.

– Cultural Heritage Organization, Mohammadiyeh Gate Registration Report, 1975, 1997.

– Shahidi Mazandarani, Hossein, History of Tehran, Tehran, Donya and Rah-e Mana Publications, 2004, pp. 27-31, 44- 59, 85-86, 91, 135, 144-150 and 466.

– Mahboubi Ardakani, Hossein, History of New Civilization Institutions in Iran, Tehran, University of Tehran, 2534, Volume 2, pp. 321-328.

– Motamedi, Mohsen, Geography History of Tehran, Tehran, University Press, 2002, pp. 24-29, 74, 140 and 251.

8. Monsieur Boehler

9. Zatti

10. Veban

11. Fabius Boital

Sources and References

– Silk, Farshad, Tehran Roozgar Ghadim , Tehran, House of History and Silk Image, 2010, pp. 28-48.

Etemad-ol-Saltaneh, Mohammad Hassan Khan, Tarikh Montazem Naseri, edited by Mohammad Ismail Rezvani, Tehran, Book World, 1988, Volume II, pp. 791, 800, 864, 1013-1016, 1024-1029, 1059-1062, 1086 and 1094-1095.

_______, Al-Ma’athir wa Al-Athar, by Iraj Afshar, Tehran, Asatir, 1984, Volume 1, pp. 104-105 and 130.

– Hosseini Bolaghi, Hojjat, Selected History of Tehran, Tehran, Maziar, 2007, pp. 107, 166, 221, 239, 288-292, 305 and 326.

– Cultural Heritage Organization, Registration Report of Mohammadiyeh Gate, 1975, 1997.

– Shahidi Mazandarani, Hossein, History of Tehran, Tehran, Donya and Rah-e Mana Publications, 2004, pp. 27-31, 44- 59, 85-86, 91, 135, 144-150 and 466.

– Mahboubi Ardakani, Hossein, History of New Civilization Institutions in Iran, Tehran, University of Tehran, 2534, Volume II, pp. 321-328.

– Motamedi, Mohsen, Geography History of Tehran, Tehran, University Publishing, 2002, pp. 24-29, 74, 140 and 251.

– Hamedani, Ali Karam, Tehran, The Great Islamic Encyclopedia, Tehran, 2008, Volume 16, pp. 46-473.

 

About KSRA

The Kavian Scientific Research Association (KSRA) is a non-profit research organization to provide research / educational services in December 2013. The members of the community had formed a virtual group on the Viber social network. The core of the Kavian Scientific Association was formed with these members as founders. These individuals, led by Professor Siavosh Kaviani, decided to launch a scientific / research association with an emphasis on education.

KSRA research association, as a non-profit research firm, is committed to providing research services in the field of knowledge. The main beneficiaries of this association are public or private knowledge-based companies, students, researchers, researchers, professors, universities, and industrial and semi-industrial centers around the world.

Our main services Based on Education for all Spectrum people in the world. We want to make an integration between researches and educations. We believe education is the main right of Human beings. So our services should be concentrated on inclusive education.

The KSRA team partners with local under-served communities around the world to improve the access to and quality of knowledge based on education, amplify and augment learning programs where they exist, and create new opportunities for e-learning where traditional education systems are lacking or non-existent.

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Professor Siavosh Kaviani was born in 1961 in Tehran. He had a professorship. He holds a Ph.D. in Software Engineering from the QL University of Software Development Methodology and an honorary Ph.D. from the University of Chelsea.

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