The Role of Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning Techniques: Race for COVID-19 Vaccine

The Role of Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning Techniques: Race for COVID-19 Vaccine

Table of Contents




Abstract

Context: In the healthcare system, Artificial Intelligence (AI) is emerging as a productive tool. There are instances where AI has done marvels in the diagnosis of various health conditions and the interpretation of complex medical disorders. Although AI is far from human intelligence, it can be used as an effective tool to study the SARS-CoV-2 and its capabilities, virulence, and genome. The progress of the pandemic can be tracked, and the patients can be monitored, thereby speeding up the research for the treatment of COVID-19. In this review article, we highlighted the importance of AI and Machine learning (ML) techniques that can speed up the path to the discovery of a possible cure for COVID-19 (vaccine). We also deal with the interactions between viromics and AI, which can hopefully find a solution to this pandemic.

Evidence Acquisition: A review of different articles was conducted using the following databases: MEDLINE/PubMed, SCOPUS, Web of Science, ScienceDirect, and Google Scholar for recent studies regarding the use of AI, seeking the spread of different infectious diseases using relevant MeSH subheadings.

Results: After a thorough screening of different articles, 30 articles were considered, and key information was obtained from them. Finally, the scope was broadened to obtain more information. Our findings indicated that AI/ML is a promising approach to drug development.

Conclusions: The field of AI has enormous potential to predict the changes that may take place in the environment. If this technology is applied to situations of a pandemic such as COVID-19, breakthroughs could potentially pave the way for new vaccines and antiviral drugs.

Keywords

Artificial Intelligence, Neural Networks, Machine Learning, Algorithms, Spike Glycoprotein, Deep Learning, COVID-19

Context

Among recent revolutions in technology, Artificial Intelligence (AI) is one emerging boom that is happening all over the world. Considering supercomputers, facial recognition, robots in surgery, or automated manufacturing, AI has taken over the world. This is the reason why AI futurists and economists tend to call AI the “fourth industrial revolution” (1). Although the mortality rate of the SARS-CoV-2 virus is low, this novel coronavirus (COVID-19) is one of the most infectious diseases affecting our planet in the past decades. This virus was first spotted in Wuhan, China, and has now globally spread to over 190 countries, infecting more than 400,000 people and more than 15,000 deaths (2, 3). Governments and health organizations of the world are constantly working day and night to combat the disease, but it has so far proved to be a major hurdle. Many scientists are seeking the help of AI. Artificial intelligence can aid as an effective tool to study the virus and its capabilities, virulence, and genome. Furthermore, it can help predict the protein structure of the virus and its interaction with other chemical compounds. This can help accelerate the preparation of new antiviral drugs and vaccines (4).

Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning (ML) are two giant effective weapons that we have against this notoriously fast progressive virus. The main aim of our review was to deal with the interaction between viromics and AI/Deep Learning, which might remarkably help find a solution to this pandemic. We also offered our processed data and code after analyzing different articles, which might be used for diagnostic purposes by doctors, researchers, scientists, and virologists who are involved in finding a solution for the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. This technology is a promising approach in healthcare and can meet the needs of researchers and scientists in antiviral drugs and vaccine development (5, 6). The main objective of this article was to emphasize the importance of AI/Deep learning technologies in the field of healthcare and curbing infectious diseases like COVID-19. Using these tools, researchers can speed up the way of finding a possible cure to COVID-19.

Discussion

4.1. Current Scenario in the Use of AI/ML Technologies in Vaccine Development for COVID-19. In the present circumstances, AI technologies are not widely employed by all researchers during vaccine and drug development. Only fewer machine learning models have been implemented for the spread of coronavirus. AI can forecast the rate in which an infection spreads in a particular region. This data can be further processed to help provide health officials the situation of a particular pandemic, thereby aiding the coronavirus response. However, there are many barriers involved such as availability of datasets, limited trained professionals, and resources. In AI and ML, every model is trained so that the solution to the problem is achieved. This is the basis of AI/ML-based researchers and scientists. We believe that this field could have an enormous impact on the current highly accelerating pandemic, COVID-19, that is taking over the world (33- 37).

4.2. Applications of Artificial Intelligence and Accounts of Successful Trials

● Deep Learning-BasedDrug Screening for Novel Coronavirus: This method was created by researchers in China using DenseNet to predict the interactions between proteins and ligands. This helps predict which drug combinations work preferably well in response to the virus (38-40).

● Predicting Antiviral Drugs that are Available Commercially to Control COVID-19: Here, a specific method called Molecule Transformer Drug Target (MT-DTI) is used (41).

● DeepMind and AlphaFold: DeepMind uses the AlphaFold library to predict the protein structures of COVID-19(42, 43).

● Prediction of Critically Ill Patients in Wuhan Using ML Models: Artificial Intelligence scientists in Wuhan developed this method to identify the intensity of infections with factors such as age, gender, etc.

● Data based screening and Kalman filters for analysis of data.

● Further predictions of infection in a particular region (44-46).

The Role of Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning Techniques: Race for COVID-19 Vaccine
The Role of Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning Techniques:
Race for COVID-19 Vaccine

4.3. Conclusions Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning is still subject to many criticisms, and many people are questioning its capacity to solve real-world problems. In other words, it is still an underutilized area in healthcare systems that needs to be developed to benefit millions of people. The main reason is that people prefer to handle every situation in a manual way. For instance, a hospital will prefer to handle its X-Ray or CT data in a manual way by doctors rather than train a model using CNNs to analyze the data. But if this technology is used to the maximum, it has the potential to create a revolution in the field of vaccine and drug development and benefit the whole of mankind.

About KSRA

The Kavian Scientific Research Association (KSRA) is a non-profit research organization to provide research / educational services in December 2013. The members of the community had formed a virtual group on the Viber social network. The core of the Kavian Scientific Association was formed with these members as founders. These individuals, led by Professor Siavosh Kaviani, decided to launch a scientific / research association with an emphasis on education.

KSRA research association, as a non-profit research firm, is committed to providing research services in the field of knowledge. The main beneficiaries of this association are public or private knowledge-based companies, students, researchers, researchers, professors, universities, and industrial and semi-industrial centers around the world.

Our main services Based on Education for all Spectrum people in the world. We want to make an integration between researches and educations. We believe education is the main right of Human beings. So our services should be concentrated on inclusive education.

The KSRA team partners with local under-served communities around the world to improve the access to and quality of knowledge based on education, amplify and augment learning programs where they exist, and create new opportunities for e-learning where traditional education systems are lacking or non-existent.

FULL Paper PDF file:

The Role of Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning Techniques: Race for COVID-19 Vaccine

Bibliography

author

Shantani Kannan , Kannan Subbaram, Sheeza Aliو Hemalatha Kannan

Year

2020

Title

The Role of Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning Techniques: Race for COVID-19 Vaccine

Publish in

Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine Research Center, SBUMS

Doi

doi: 10.5812/archcid.103232.

PDF reference and original file: Click here

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Nasim Gazerani was born in 1983 in Arak. She holds a Master's degree in Software Engineering from UM University of Malaysia.

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Professor Siavosh Kaviani was born in 1961 in Tehran. He had a professorship. He holds a Ph.D. in Software Engineering from the QL University of Software Development Methodology and an honorary Ph.D. from the University of Chelsea.

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Somayeh Nosrati was born in 1982 in Tehran. She holds a Master's degree in artificial intelligence from Khatam University of Tehran.

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