What is the philosophy of love?

philosophy of love

Table of Contents




Preface: “Philosophy of love and romance”

Every soul desires something that is in accordance with its nature and creates a force according to its value and talent called love( philosophy of love ). This love flows in everything. So love is all-encompassing and has levels.
Mystics and philosophers have considered love current in various levels of existence from the weakest degree to the strongest level, that is, the obligatory existence (God); Love has different degrees in each of these levels.
According to them, the secret of survival and evolution is in love. Ibn Sina, the great philosopher of the Islamic world, with the help of mystical taste and philosophical method, has proved the union of love, lover and beloved, and has been able to justify the dominance of love in a wide area of ​​the world.

Introduction”The meaning of love (philosophy of love)”

Ibn Sina says in his treatise on the nature of love: In fact, love is nothing but considering the good (good and beautiful) and gentle (according to nature). Accordingly, he believes that each creature admires what it finds gentle and adaptable, and if it lacks it, it is drawn to it. The special good of any being is known as attaining what is in fact gentle to him, or what is supposed to be gentle to him.
Ibn Sina has given a definition of love in his law book, but his love in it means a kind of melancholy (crazy) attachment and passion of one person to another. Therefore, in this book, Ibn Sina considers love as a kind of disease and also refers to the ways of its cure. His definition is as follows: Love is a kind of melancholy-like disease in which man afflicts himself, in which the goodness and merit of certain forms and images dominate thought.
Conclusion: The philosophy of love is to be attracted to a good and perfect being (God Almighty) that until this is achieved, the attainment of happiness and perfection will not be achieved. In fact, the philosophy of love is to achieve perfection and happiness that is given to the lover by the lover. Therefore, the earthly passions and interests that occur between human beings and other human beings cannot be called love. Because the beloved must be perfect and good, while both themselves are needy and needy.

philosophy of love: True love – virtual love – the love of God

True Ladder of True Love:

The virtual love that is in the heart can be a bridge to divine love. The lover must pay attention to the source of perfection and goodness of the beloved and focus his point of view on it and consider the virtual lover as a “symbol” of his true love and consider him as a manifestation of his beauty and perfection. If in virtual love, the lover is always aware of the fact that his lover is “virtual” and only to guide him to “superior and supreme love”, he can pass through this love and reach true and divine love, but if the gaze He limits himself to the same virtual lover and his soul and heart are limited and subjugated to him, he can never pass through him and reach the real lover.
In addition, he should always try and make sure that when dealing with a virtual lover, he remembers the real lover and with his gaze, he remembers the embarrassment of the main lover, like Jacob’s love for his son Yusuf, whenever Jacob “looks Yusuf in the eye”. He saw with the “secret eye” in observing the truth, and because he was prevented from seeing Yusuf for a while, the observation of Hazrat Haqq was also veiled from his heart. Hence, all of Jacob’s grief in Yusuf’s emptiness was on the death of seeing the truth, not on the death of Yusuf’s companionship, and when he succeeded in seeing Yusuf again, he prostrated when his heart saw the main lover. (Kashf al-Asrar, vol. 5,.)
In any case, we can turn virtual love into divine and true love when we go through it and turn to its original source and cause.
Virtual love is like a ladder, a bridge, and the entrance to the real world of love. Virtual love is rooted in true love; Because our love is focused on the true lover and we love everything that is from him and gives him a scent and is his verse.
According to a narration, a teenager who had not yet reached the age of puberty greeted the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) and, happy to see him, opened his face and smiled. The Imam said to him: O young man! Do you love me He said: O Messenger of God! I swear to God. Did he say: Like you? He said: O Messenger of God! I swear to God more. Did he say: Like your Lord? He said: God, God, O Messenger of God! This position is not for you or anyone else. In fact, I love you for God’s friendship.
At this time, the Messenger of God turned to his companions and said: Be like this; Love God for His goodness and goodness and love me for the friendship of God. (Irshad al-Qulub, Daylami)

Intellectual Behavior Introduction Mystical Behavior To reach true love, one must step into the valley of journey and behavior. Rational behavior is an introduction to mystical behavior. With the exception of some Sufi shaykhs, whose words do not explicitly convey such a thing, and whose opposition to reason in their speech is simply rational; Other mystics believe in such a thing and consider rational behavior as a necessity of mystical behavior.
Rational arguments used in intellectual conduct are like material written in one language and read in the same original language, but the mystical arguments used in mystical conduct are like material translated from another language; In other words, the mystic aims at the intuition of divine attributes and names, which is done with the eyes of the heart, but when he wants to recite it to others, he cannot with the heart, so he translates it and expresses those pieces of evidence in the form of intellect; Therefore, the stronger the intellectual power of a mystic (intellectual behavior), the more successful he is in this translation. The translation of the mystical pieces of evidence is what is called theoretical mysticism in mysticism
Therefore, it must be said that if we believe in the difference between rational behavior and mystical behavior, it does not mean that these two behaviors are completely different from each other, but as we have said, intellectual behavior is the basis of mystical behavior. It should be noted that true mystics are not irrational; Rather, they believe that in order to move further, one must cross the valley of reason, because in the higher stages, in addition to the support of reason, one needs heart and love, and therefore mystics in the valley of love consider only the heart as a means to reach the desired perfection. The first stage of conduct and servitude, in practice, is for man to attain piety. In this way, he should perform all the duties that are incumbent on him and leave all the taboos, and after ensuring his rational conduct and performing his religious duties, he should enter the mystical conduct and perform acts of worship and austerity with love and affection.
Practical steps to conduct
In terms of journey and behavior, there are steps that all seekers share, that is, there are things in human success to go through these steps that if he pays attention to them and uses them, in realizing the conditions of slavery, It is more successful. These include “meditation”, “meditation” and “calculation”.

A) Participation

When a person wakes up in the morning, he should think a little that God Almighty has given me a new life today and has given me a new capital. It was possible for me to die while I was asleep. “Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.” (Zumar: 42) At the time of sleep, God takes all souls, but those who have not yet reached the end, their souls He returns again. It should be noted that waking up is a blessing from God and a new capital that has been given to him, with which he can achieve happiness in this world and the hereafter, or the loss and cruelty of this world and the hereafter. Achieved. After pondering about this, he has to bet on himself, which is called “contract”. That is, he bets with himself and decides to avoid sin.
It is on the basis of this betting and contracting that he abstains from all sins during that day and fulfills all the obligations that he performs. It is as if the human soul is like a partner in front of it. He gives him a capital to trade with and bets him that with this capital, you should make a profit and not make a loss! This contract with the soul has a psychological effect that man can pay more attention to his duties during the day and not be neglected.

B) Meditation

After “meditation”, it is time for “meditation”. Meditation is also a term derived from narrations and prayers. In the prayers of Sha’baniyah, it is stated: “Fakun Lak is a mystic and deviates from Swak and Monk is afraid.” When he bets with himself and decides to avoid sin and do the obligatory things and to always take care of himself during the day, he is like an employer who takes care of his work to do things right. We should all watch over ourselves during the day so that there is no slipping and deviating from the path of obedience and worship of God.

C) Calculation

After meditation, it is “calculation”. When a person wants to sleep at night, he has to think for a moment about his daily behavior and remember one by one what he has done from morning to that time and take into account his own self; Like the owner of a capital who counts on the agent of Mudaraba or his partner. He should take care of the work of all his members and associates, whether they have done their duties well or have violated it? If everyone has been in the line of servitude, thank God that he has given him such success that one day he will obey. He should forgive and if he has violated and slipped, he should ask for forgiveness and make up for it before it is too late.
It is narrated that when a believer makes a mistake, the angels who are in charge of writing down his deeds wait for a while, if he repents, they do not write anything, and if he does not repent, then they record his mistake. In any case, if a slip has penetrated him, he should seek forgiveness that night. If he has left the obligation, he should fulfill his rules. If he has violated someone’s right, he should compensate it and settle his account.
These three things, namely the decision at the beginning of the day, the monitoring during the day, and the calculation of the end of the night, are present in all stages of the journey, but their levels and severity and weakness are different, which we will mention.
Performing duties and abstaining from taboos is a condition for success in rational conduct
So the first step is to take care of one’s duties and abstain from forbidden things. At this stage, it is not necessary to pay much attention to the mustahabb. He should make an effort to perform his duties well and not to commit any sins or slips. Of course, this does not mean that he should leave all the mustahabb, but he can replace the mustahabb to which he is accustomed or easy to perform. Brought. The most important thing in the stage of meditation is to perform the duties and abstain from the prohibitions correctly so that the queen of piety will be obtained for her and she will become accustomed to performing the obligatory duties as well as forsaking her sins. It should not be that there is a need for reflection and the decision to leave any sin.
All believers must pass this stage and it is a prelude to the mystical journey and entering the valley of love; For as long as man is afflicted with sin, every effort in the way of worshiping God will have little effect on him, and it is just like the pocket of a hole from which whatever money is poured out of it. Sins destroy deeds. Bad morals, such as jealousy, resentment, and suspicion, melt faith. “Envy or faith is like the fire of fire.”
In the narrations, we have people who are afflicted with the sin of absenteeism or some other sins. If a sin is committed against them, their worship will not be accepted for forty days. And it will not have the effect it should have on the soul. Observance of piety and fulfillment of duties and abandonment of prohibitions is also a condition for success in the next stages of life and conduct.
Leave the suspicions
After the Queen of Piety has reached this level, it is time for a higher level than the level of meditation. Until now, he has been trying to do his duty, but this time, he is trying to leave the doubts.
Suspicions are deeds that man is not sure of being sinful, but they are suspicious of sin, that is, he is exposed to sin. In the beginning, because he is not sure, he may not have any obligation to avoid it, but after performing the action, he realizes that he has done forbidden things. So the next step is to avoid suspicion.
The role of mustahabb in behavior
The next step is to do what is recommended and leave the abominable as much as he can and include these matters in his meditation program. Of course, the chapter of mustahabb is very wide, and if a person spends all day and night doing istihabs, he will not be able to do all of them again, so in this regard, a choice must be made and time, power and priorities must be considered.
Moreover, today, when our Islamic country needs to be rebuilt, we have so much obligatory duty that sometimes it is not the turn of the recommended ones, but there are also recommended ones that do not interfere with the obligatory deeds; For example, praying at the first time is a mustahabb that has been emphasized a lot.
Praying in the first place is one of the greatest mustahabb. One of the great men and professors of ethics had said that if someone commits to perform his obligatory prayers in the first place, I guarantee that he will attain very high positions in mysticism.
Another of this mustahabb is observing the presence of the heart in prayer. This is a mustahabb that does not require extra time but increases the quality of worship a hundredfold.
Another of this mustahabb is to observe politeness in the presence of parents. Among the elders, there were those who did not sit in their presence until their parents gave them permission. These are mustahabb that do not require extra time. It is also a mustahabb that takes time. How good it is for a person to consult with his teacher and moral teacher about the choice of these mustahabb, and among the many mustahabb that have been included, such as reciting the Qur’an, daily nawafil, especially night nafilah, some dhikr, especially the four glorifications, and the honorable dhikr اللا الله », prayers of the day, morning and evening prayers, weekly prayers and the like, select some; Of course, all of this is good, but depending on the individual, some of them may have a preference.

Existence of a worship program

What is emphasized in the noble narrations is the existence of a plan of worship, which we must persevere in carrying out, otherwise, it will not have the effect it should have.
Insufficient principles, several narrations have been narrated that emphasize the persistence of the act of worship, even if it is small. Narrations on this subject: “Persistence in the action of the few is better than the action of the many.” In short, what is emphasized in the course of action is that we must first select programs that are easy and we can persevere.
It should not be the case that he performs an action for two days and cannot continue it the next day. She must continue to do so until she becomes queen. The sign of becoming a queen is that if she accidentally abandons that deed, she will be upset. It has been narrated from the Holy Prophet that he said: “A good deed brings a special habit to the believer, so that if one day that deed is done “If he does not do it, he will be upset and it seems that he has lost something or committed a sin.”

The role of the heart and heart intentions in behavior

So far it has been a matter of action, what to do, and what to leave. After this, it is the turn of a higher stage, which of course is accompanied by meditation, meditation, and calculation. At this stage, more attention should be paid to the heart and heart intentions. When the human soul and body were strengthened in the way of performing their duties and abstaining from forbidden things, so that no deviation or slip from any member ever occurred and piety became the queen, in fact, the mystical journey begins from here. ; Because what is related to action is also issued from human beings who are very weak in knowledge. What is more mystical is the deeds of the human heart. The beginning of this stage is for man to adorn his deeds with pure intention. He should start from the duties and try not to be hypocritical in any of the duties he performs;
The seeker must purify his intention in committing and abandoning prohibitions; Of course, this is a difficult task, but it is possible. Each stage of the journey is more difficult than the previous one, but it will be easy and pleasant with the grace that God Almighty has for His servant. If a person perseveres in the early stages and comes out of the tests proud, God will give him such joy and pleasure that if one day, a good deed is left to him, he will be very upset and disappointed.

How to correct heart intentions

In order for man to be able to purify his intention, he must prepare and pay attention; Because the pure intention is not something that man can achieve immediately whenever he wants. One who likes to be loved by the people and respected by all, whether he likes it or not, has a flawed intention. A person can have pure intentions in deeds that he has no love of place and in order to avoid hypocrisy, he must perform his duties in secret as much as possible; Of course, there are slippery slopes here. Some people no longer attend congregational prayers when they want to perform their worship in secret. The reason is that we want to pray in private so as not to be hypocritical. These are the traps of the devil. Must attend congregational prayers and Friday prayers. With the excuse that I am afraid of being hypocritical, we should not be deceived by Satan and disobey God’s commands.

Anas with God

One of the instructions that are very useful and effective at this stage is to try to make Anas with the human heart. If we do something to satisfy our carnal desires, it is because we are interested in that materially pleasurable work, or when we do something for the sake of our friend, it is because he loves us. We are interested. When a person can do something for the sake of which God loves it, that instead of these loves, he puts the love of God in his heart, we read in the prayers of Sha’baniya: “God does not do anything about the transgression of your sins except At the time of your love for your love »God! I could not stop sinning unless you awakened my heart with your love. When a ray of your love fell on my heart, it became easy for me to avoid sin. If a man can increase the love of God in his heart, all problems and difficulties will be easy for him.
If a man falls in love with God, it will not be difficult for him not only to wake up in the morning. But as a popular visit, it will be enjoyable. What could be more enjoyable for a person who loves someone than to sit and talk to him in private? If a particle of divine love falls into a person’s heart, there is nothing more pleasing to him than to open the way to the beloved at dawn, when all eyes are asleep, all doors are closed and everywhere is closed. In order for God’s love to appear in man’s heart, he must know and think about the blessings that God has bestowed on man. Millions of blessings that if one of them were given to him by a human being, he would be grateful for the rest of his life.

Conclusion

In short, the condition for lasting love is the knowledge of God and fellowship with Him. The love that remains lasting between two human beings cannot be achieved with one encounter and one look; Rather, this love will last when there is the friendship between them.
The love of God is more or less in everyone’s heart. How can he not love God? Does he have something he does not like? Whatever can be the criterion of love is infinitely present in him. Therefore, in order for the seeds of love to grow and remain stable in the heart of every Muslim, he must become acquainted with God.

About KSRA

The Kavian Scientific Research Association (KSRA) is a non-profit research organization to provide research / educational services in December 2013. The members of the community had formed a virtual group on the Viber social network. The core of the Kavian Scientific Association was formed with these members as founders. These individuals, led by Professor Siavosh Kaviani, decided to launch a scientific / research association with an emphasis on education.

KSRA research association, as a non-profit research firm, is committed to providing research services in the field of knowledge. The main beneficiaries of this association are public or private knowledge-based companies, students, researchers, researchers, professors, universities, and industrial and semi-industrial centers around the world.

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The KSRA team partners with local under-served communities around the world to improve the access to and quality of knowledge based on education, amplify and augment learning programs where they exist, and create new opportunities for e-learning where traditional education systems are lacking or non-existent.

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Maryam Momeni was born in 1970 in Tehran. She holds a degree in Literature - German language from the Melli University of Tehran.
As an assistant administrator, my duties will include overseeing and analyzing financial operations, approving purchases and expenditures, mediating between staff and other executives, appointing heads of departments, marketing and promoting the business, and facilitating training programs. My expertise in streamlining business operations will help the organization thrive and maximize efficiency and profits.

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Professor Siavosh Kaviani was born in 1961 in Tehran. He had a professorship. He holds a Ph.D. in Software Engineering from the QL University of Software Development Methodology and an honorary Ph.D. from the University of Chelsea.

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